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how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury

In the face of Monopsony employers, Trades Unions can increase wages and increase employment. Traditionally, monopsonies occur when there is only firm in how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury a town or type of employment. However, in modern economies, many employers have a degree of monopsony power - related to difficulties of moving between jobs. From the values of critical thinking international school eerde late 1890s to how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, 1980s, the act writing essay bournemouth university UK saw a growth in trade union membership. This was also a period of falling inequality and a reduction in relative poverty. Since trade union membership peaked in the early 1980s, this trend of reduced inequality has been reversed and how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury inequality has increased. It is also argued that if unions are very powerful and disruptive, it can discourage firms from investing and creating employment in the jobs. If firms fear frequent strikes and a non-cooperative union, they may prefer to invest in thinking to bishopstrow college another country with better labour relations. For example, in the 1970s, the UK experienced widespread industrial unrest and this is cited as a factor behind the UK's relative decline. Economic growth can help various macroeconomic objectives. Reduction in poverty . Increased national output means households can enjoy more goods and services. For countries with significant levels of poverty, economic growth can enable vastly improved living standards. For example, in the nineteenth century, absolute poverty was widespread in thinking to bishopstrow college Europe, a century of economic growth has lifted nearly everyone out of this state of poverty. Act writing essay Bournemouth University! Economic growth is particularly important in short articles stanstead college developing economies. Reduced Unemployment . A stagnant economy leads to higher rates of unemployment and the consequent social misery. Economic growth leads to higher demand and firms are likely to increase employment. Improved public services . Higher economic growth leads to higher tax revenues (even with tax rates staying the same). With higher growth, incomes and profit, the government will receive more income tax, corporation tax and expenditure taxes. The government can then spend more on public services. Reduced debt to GDP ratios . Economic growth helps reduce debt to GDP ratios. In the 1950s, the UK had a national debt of over 200% of how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy, GDP. Despite very few years of budget surplus, economic growth enabled a reduction in the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury level of debt to GDP. Countries with positive rates of economic growth will create a virtuous cycle Economic growth will encourage inward investment as firms seek to benefit from short articles stanstead college, rising demand Higher growth leads to improved tax revenues which can be spent on long-term public sector works, such as improved transport and communication. This helps long-term growth. Confidence to invest. Higher growth encourages firms to take risks - innovate and invest in future products and how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury productive capacity. Inequality and distribution . Economic growth doesn't necessarily reduce relative poverty, it depends on how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy, the distribution of incomes. Values of critical thinking International School Eerde! Economic growth could bypass the poorest in society. For example in the 1980s, the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury Gini coefficient rose sharply - the richest 1% gained dis proportionality more. Negative externalities . Economic growth can cause negative externalities such as pollution, higher crime rates and congestion which actually reduce living standards. For example, China has experienced very rapid economic growth but is now experience very serious levels of air pollution in major cities. Economic growth may conflict with the environment . e.g. increased carbon production is leading to global warming. Economic growth may bring benefits in the short-term, but costs in the long-term. It depends on what is produced . The Soviet Union has fantastic rates of economic growth, but, often through producing a lot of steel and pig iron that was not actually very useful. Economic growth can be unsustainable . If growth is too rapid, it will cause inflation, current account deficit and how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury can lead to boom and bust. Does happiness actually increase? Theories of hedonistic relativism suggest (beyond a certain level) increasing output has no effect on some topics for essay writing algonquin college, changing life quality or happiness. One reason is that increasing the money supply has no effect on reducing interest rates. Inelastic demand for investment. In a liquidity trap, firms are not tempted by lower interest rates. The marginal efficiency of capital indicates the rate of return from how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, investment. Usually, lower interest rates make it more profitable to borrow and invest. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! However, in a recession, firms don't want to invest because they expect low demand. Therefore, even though it may be cheap to borrow - they don't want to risk making investment. Expectations of deflation . If there is how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury deflation or people expect deflation (fall in prices) then real interest rates can be quite high even if nominal interest rates are zero. - If prices are falling 2% a year, then keeping cash under your mattress means your money will increase in thinking to bishopstrow college value. The difficulty is in having negative nominal interest rates (banks would be paying you to borrow money). (There have been attempts to create a negative interest rates (e.g. destroy money in circulation but in practice, it is rarely implemented.) Preference for saving . Liquidity traps occur during periods of act writing essay bournemouth university, recessions and a gloomy economic outlook. Consumers, firms and banks are pessimistic about the future, so they look to increase their precautionary savings and it is difficult to get them to spend. This rise in the savings ratio means spending falls. Also, in recessions banks are much more reluctant to lend. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! Also, cutting the base rate to how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, 0% may not translate into lower commercial bank lending rates as banks just don't want to lend. Credit Crunch. Banks lost significant sums of money in buying sub-prime debt which defaulted. Therefore, they are seeking to improve their balance sheets. They are reluctant to some topics for essay writing algonquin college, lend so even if firms and consumers want to take advantage of low-interest rates, banks won't lend them the how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy money. Unwillingness to hold bonds . If interest rates are zero, investors will expect interest rates to rise sometime. If interest rates rise, the price of bonds falls (see: inverse relationship between bond yields and bond prices) Therefore, investors would rather keep cash savings than hold bonds. Banks don't pass base rate cuts onto how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy, consumers. Quantitative Easing - policy to create money and reduce yields on government and corporate bonds Helicopter money - more direct than quantitative easing as rather than buying assets from banks, the money is given directly to the people. Expansionary Fiscal Policy - Keynes argued in a liquidity trap, it is necessary for how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy, a government to pursue direct investment in the thinking to bishopstrow college economy. For example, building public work schemes has the effect of creating demand and getting unused resources back into the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury circular flow. Overcoming a Liquidity trap Higher Inflation Expectations Liquidity Trap and Fiscal Policy Liquidity explained. Cost of borrowing is how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury more expensive. If borrowing is more expensive consumers will take out fewer loans. Firms will borrow less. Therefore consumer spending and investment will fall (or increase at slower rates) Mortgage and loan repayments increase. This reduces consumer disposable income and consumer spending further. Return on savings increase. Values of critical thinking International School Eerde! More attractive to save and this will reduce consumer spending Higher interest rates cause an appreciation in the exchange rate due to hot money flows. Act writing essay Bournemouth University! (It is more attractive to save in the UK, if UK interest rates are higher than other countries) An appreciation in the exchange rate makes more expensive, leading to less export demand Fall in asset prices. Higher interest rates can make it less attractive to buy a house with a mortgage leading to lower house prices. Act writing essay Bournemouth University! ------------------------ If consumer spending and investment falls, this will lead to lower AD. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! Therefore this causes a fall in how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy Real GDP or at least a fall in the rate of economic growth. Lower growth will tend to increase unemployment. With less output, firms demand less workers. Lower growth will also help to some topics for essay writing algonquin college, reduce inflation. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! --------- In Credit Crunch of 2008, lower interest rates failed to boost economic growth. Inflation target of some topics for essay writing algonquin college, 2%. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! But Bank has to consider other objectives such as economic growth and inflation. It also has to consider the type of how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, inflation. How to write a descriptive essay about a picture Saint John Paul II Academy! Is it temporary cost-push inflation or underlying inflationary pressures. Is the economy reaching full capacity? Graph showing combination of high inflation and volatile output. The Bank of England deregulated the mortgage market - meaning High Street Banks could now lend mortgages (not just local building societies). This helped fuel a rise in house prices and how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury consumer wealth. Barber Boom of 1972. In the 1972 budget, the chancellor Anthony Barber made a dash for how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, growth - with large tax cuts against a backdrop of high economic growth. Growth of Credit. It was in the 1970s, we saw the first mass use of credit cards (Access). This helped create a consumer bubble. Rising wages, partly due to strength of unions. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! The inflationary budget of 1972. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! Growth in credit and consumer spending. Oil price shock of 1973, leading to 70% increase in oil prices. Oil Prices in the 1970s. blue line - nominal oil prices Yellow line - Real oil prices, adjusted for how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, inflation. Since oil had become an intrinsic part of the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury economy, we had taken it for some topics for essay writing algonquin college, granted that oil could be bought cheaply. The 1960s and early 1970s, saw a rapid rise in ownership of cars and motoring. Britain enthusiastically embraced the motor car - helped by rising incomes and cheap petrol. In the mid 1970s, the UK saw a deterioration in the current account. High UK inflation was making UK goods less competitive. Also domestic consumer spending remained relatively strong - sucking in how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury more imports. Although the current account reached a peak of only 4% of GDP in late 1974, (low compared to current account in 2000s) there were greater concerns about financing the current account deficit in the 1970s due to act writing essay bournemouth university, less investment income. Due to rise in GDP, total public sector debt fell from approx 60% of values of critical thinking international school eerde, GDP (1970) to 50% in 1980 (see: National debt. What to produce? - Is it worth spending more on health care? How to produce? - Should we leave it to market forces or implement government regulations. For whom to produce? - How should we distribute resources, should we place higher income tax on the wealthiest in society? However, the problem is that economists may often disagree on the best solution to these challenges. For example, at the start of the great depression in how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy 1930, leading economists in the UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the budget; i.e. higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and values of critical thinking international school eerde led to a fall in demand. The over production of negative externalities (e.g. pollution/congestion) The underproduction of goods with positive externalities (e.g. education, health care, public transport). Non-provision of Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus. How to write a summary of a scientific article Mercersburg Academy! This means placing excess importance on the current time period and short articles stanstead college making decisions our future self may regret. This includes over-consumption of demerit goods like alcohol and tobacco and failure to save for a pension. A run on the pound is more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. e.g. when the Government is committed to trying to keep the Pound at a certain level. Short articles Stanstead College! If markets feel this level is unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury forced to devalue. For example, in how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of Sterling in ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the UK out and we had to devalue. The graph above shows the thinking to bishopstrow college near 20% devaluation in 1992. How to write a descriptive essay about a picture Saint John Paul II Academy! We also had a run on the pound in the values of critical thinking international school eerde late 60s, causing the Wilson government to devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on the Pound as markets feared the UK's fiscal position. Financial crisis depreciation. Some topics for essay writing Algonquin College! The credit crunch of 2008 hit the UK economy hard because it was more reliant on the financial sector than most other economies. High inflation - high inflation reduces the value of Pound Sterling. Foreign investors will be nervous of holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. Threat of sovereign debt default . If markets feel government borrowing is too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, foreigners losing their government bonds. How to write a summary of a scientific article Mercersburg Academy! Therefore, the market will sell bonds causing an outflow of foreign currency and fall in value of sterling. This can build up a momentum effect. As the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury fall in the currency can alarm other investors. Large current account deficit. A large current account deficit implies we rely on capital flows to finance the current account deficit. Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. In this circumstance a run on the Pound would be stronger. However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury 1980s. (See: Current account deficit) Interest rates can influence the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! The Bank of England change the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury 'base' interest rate to try and target the government's inflation rate of 2% +/-1 Generally, an short articles stanstead college increase in inflation leads to higher interest rates. A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in the UK. Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. Thinking to Bishopstrow College! When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against the effects of inflation. However, in 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. How to write a summary of a scientific article Mercersburg Academy! A negative real interest rate is bad news for short articles stanstead college, savers, but good news for borrowers. Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the Bank of England increases interest rates to reduce inflationary pressure. Higher interest rates tend to reduce consumer spending. This is because homeowners see an increase in the cost of their mortgage payments and have less disposable income. Therefore, they spend less. Short articles Stanstead College! Also, higher interest rates increase the incentive to save and reduce the thinking to bishopstrow college incentive to borrow. Therefore, an increase in interest rates tends to reduce the values of critical thinking international school eerde rate of economic growth and prevent inflationary pressures. See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on economy Response to Fall in Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and increase disposable income. Why A Cut in Interest Rates May Not Work. The recession was so sharp that investment and how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy interest rates have only mitigated the extent of the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on spending. Lower interest rates should boost spending. But, with house prices falling 20% since the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and therefore reduced spending. Global downturn. Even sharp depreciation has been unable to how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, boost export growth because of the extent of the economic downturn. Time Lags. A cut in interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for act writing essay bournemouth university, quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage. Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to pass the interest rate cut onto consumers. In some circumstances, the Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in inflation. For example, in some topics for essay writing algonquin college 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to 5%, but, the some topics for essay writing algonquin college Central Bank kept interest rates low. Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at risk of inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and push the economy back into recession. Related. In October 1990, the UK made the decision to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the Pound was supposed to be kept at a certain level against the DM. £1 = DM2.95. The lower limit for the exchange rate was DM 2.773. If the Pound approached this level, the thinking to bishopstrow college government would be obliged to intervene - through buying Pounds and raising interest rates. The exchange rate mechanism was designed as a precursor to how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, joining the Euro. The aim was to keep exchange rates stable; it was hoped this would: Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to join the single currency - the Euro. In the late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her more euro-sceptic views wanted to stay out. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates. Growth reached record levels of 4-5% a year. Enthusiastic government ministers talked of how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy, an economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to some topics for essay writing algonquin college, catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an illusion. High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to thinking to bishopstrow college, convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the ERM to help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in thinking to bishopstrow college October 1990. at a rate of DM 2.95 to the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is more attractive to save in UK with high interest rates. Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. High interest rates particularly hit the housing market. With rising house prices, many had taken out large mortgages to some topics for essay writing algonquin college, get on the property ladder. But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the recession, the how to write a summary of a scientific article mercersburg academy housing market saw a dramatic fall in prices that was to thinking to bishopstrow college, last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. But, more problematically, the high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the British government fought a losing battle. But, the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury foreign currency reserves of the British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and the pound kept sliding. It is act writing essay bournemouth university estimated that the Treasury used £27 billion of foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Pound. The Treasury estimated the final cost to the taxpayer was estimated at £3.4 billion. An overvalued currency can lead to lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! Trying to how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy, keep currency at a level which is short articles stanstead college too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. It is how to write a summary of a scientific article mercersburg academy hard to buck the market. Even government intervention on act writing essay bournemouth university, foreign currency markets is not sufficient to act writing essay bournemouth university, prevent depreciation if this is what reflects market fundamentals. A devaluation of the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the economy was depressed. Related. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past. With the exception of civil war in how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury Yugoslavia (which wasn't in the EU at the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury time), Europe has managed to heal the divisions which were so painfully exposed in the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. How to write a descriptive essay about a picture Saint John Paul II Academy! The EU was awarded the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 for helping to promote peace and international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and political stability. Legal and human rights. The EU has a strong commitment to human rights, preventing discrimination and the due process of law. This makes the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury EU attractive to countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to share in similar legal and human rights. Prospect of membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. The Copenhagen Criteria for EU membership enshrine a commitment to human rights, the rule of how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, law and a market economy. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! The prospect of thinking to bishopstrow college, gaining membership of the EU, encourage countries to implement human rights legislation. Economic benefits. EU is one of strongest economic areas in the world. With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the world's population but accounts for 23% of nominal global GDP. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! Free trade and removal of non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and how to write a summary of a scientific article mercersburg academy prices for consumers. Increased trade with the EU creates jobs and higher income. Over 52% of UK exports are to the EU. Trade within the EU has increased 30% since 1992. According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the Single Market has boosted the EU’s GDP by €877 billion [£588 billion]. This represents €5,700 [£3,819] of extra income per short articles stanstead college household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the how to write a summary of a scientific article mercersburg academy UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of being in the EU. Free movement of thinking to bishopstrow college, labour and capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and Ireland have benefited from the immigration of Eastern European workers to fill labour market shortages in certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and cleaning. Far from 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and makes a net contribution to tax revenues. (see impact of thinking to bishopstrow college, net migration) Free movement of labour also enables British people to live and work in Europe. Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the some topics for essay writing algonquin college EU outside the UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the NHS and pensions. See: Fiscal effects of immigration. Net migration has helped deal with the how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to travel freely across national boundaries making trade and short articles stanstead college tourism easier and cheaper. According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to act writing essay bournemouth university, other EU countries to work or to enjoy their retirement. 1.5 million young people have completed part of their studies in another member state with the help of the Erasmus programme. How to write a descriptive essay about a picture Saint John Paul II Academy! The possibility to study abroad is considered positive by 84% of EU citizens. (benefits of EU) Easier to use qualifications in different member countries. This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in different national qualifications. Mutual recognition of safety standards and rules have helped reduce costs for firms. how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury! This has encouraged the development of small and medium business who rely on how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, the low cost of exports. Social charter enshrines protection for some topics for essay writing algonquin college, workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and fair pay for how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, employment. European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the European continent. Environmental benefits of the EU. The EU has raised the quality of values of critical thinking international school eerde, sea water and how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury beeches, by how to write a descriptive essay about a picture saint john paul ii academy, implementing regulations on water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. Act writing essay Bournemouth University! 92% of tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. How to write a summary of a scientific article Mercersburg Academy! (Clean water at how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury Europa.eu) Tackling global warming. In 2006, the (EU) committed to reducing its global warming emissions by at least 20 percent of 1990 levels by 2020. The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 percent by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. How to write a descriptive essay about a picture Saint John Paul II Academy! (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Environmental treaties which have sought to deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. The EU has set strict restrictions on act writing essay bournemouth university, emissions of pollutants, such as sulphur , and other causes of acid rain. (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of some topics for essay writing algonquin college, monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to avoid abuses of cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of how to write a rogerian essay CATS College Canterbury, airlines, electricity and gas markets. The EU has reduced the price of making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for making and receiving calls. The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to create a standard design for chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for consumers and reduce wastage. In 2014, it is has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the cost of using a mobile phone abroad. (BBC link) Consumers are free to shop in any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. So what have the EU ever done for us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas?