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essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster

The Pitkern language is how do i find peer reviewed articles durham university, dying. Pitkern is the language spoken on Pitcairn Island and Norfolk Island, in the South Pacific. It's spoken by only 500 people. Younger speakers are increasingly preferring English, and many of them are moving to New Zealand or other English-speaking places. Even the small Pitkern-language version of Wikipedia has been proposed for closure twice. But if the young people don't want to essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, speak the language, what's the essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, point, right? The point, as many linguists and others will tell you, is that losing a language is like losing a species. It's a kind of extinction. As the linguist James Crawford said, when languages die the world loses four big things: linguistic diversity, intellectual diversity, cultural diversity, and completed coursework rotterdam business school, cultural identity. There are organizations dedicated to preventing this. The National Geographic Society has created an Enduring Voices Project in rubric for essay writing in high schools university of hertfordshire (navitas), collaboration with the Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages to help preserve languages, which it sees as preserving culture, ancient knowledge, ways of doing things, and ways of thinking. Many endangered languages have no written form, and with their loss we lose folklore, stories, the views and understandings of countless generations of humans. We also lose knowledge about how do i find peer reviewed articles durham university, plants, animals, ecosystems, and geography. Even with the ones that have a written form, if the speakers die out, no one thinks about the world in just that way anymore, dividing it up into those names and categories. essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster! Preserving languages is like preserving nature. No one could possibly object to it. Could they? But some people do sometimes. This includes some of the speakers of the endangered languages themselves. essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster! Some speakers see their language as limiting: if they or their children are to essay writing procedure the university of adelaide (navitas), be successful, they need to know the language of education, of science, of business, so they can talk to other people and gain the vast stores of knowledge available. How can major languages be insufficient when there's so much knowledge recorded in them? Can't you just take your local knowledge and translate it into English or Spanish? Even noted linguists aren't always on the language preservation bandwagon. Peter Ladefoged, one of the great names in essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, modern linguistics, once pointed out that in some countries tribalism is a threat to national peace and unity, and essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, pushing preservation of local languages over a national language aids and abets this schism. Is avoiding the death of languages worth causing the rubric for essay writing in high schools university of hertfordshire (navitas), death of people? What's more, resources are finite, and sometimes you have to choose which languages to focus on or all of them may be lost. Another prominent linguist, Salikoko Mufwene, reminded linguists more recently that all languages change all the time, and language death and essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, language birth are not separate things. Linguists fight people who want to pin English to an critical thinking journal rossall school, ideal version from essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, one time and place, so how can they pin any other language down in the same way? A language is how do i find peer reviewed articles durham university, not an essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, animal, after all. Rubric for essay writing in high schools University of Hertfordshire (Navitas)! It is essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, not even a species of animal. It is in constant variation. Each person speaks different varieties at how do i find peer reviewed articles durham university, different times, and essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, a given person may speak several languages. Beyond that, some of the justifications given for preserving languages go against principles most linguists hold to be true. Language shapes the way its speakers see the world? Knowledge is untranslatably encoded in a language? These ideas are, shall we say, controversial. In any event, if speakers no longer want to speak a language, who are we to tell them that they are wrong? It's their language, not ours, and essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, it's paternalistic of how do i find peer reviewed articles durham university us to expect them to critical thinking journal rossall school, do as we wish just to satisfy our need for authentic cultures to fill the completed coursework rotterdam business school, pages of magazines. We may be well justified in wanting to what is articles mercersburg academy, preserve the language for future generations; members of a culture that has lost its language sometimes feel the loss sharply, and essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, may even seek to regain the knowledge. But it's still theirs to keep or lose, not ours. And if they don't want their culture to become our museum piece, that's their right. But if the writing an argumentative paper bromsgrove international school thailand, speakers don't resist having the language recorded, we can still preserve it. Languages have been brought back from essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, "death" — the Celtic languages Cornish and Manx are often given as examples, with fewer than two dozen new native speakers but hundreds of second-language speakers. It's not quite a linguistic Jurassic Park, but it's more than nothing. And Hebrew, which was no one's home language for a long time, is now the first language of millions of people thanks to completed coursework rotterdam business school, a successful revival. Not all languages have an existing literature, however, and certainly not one like Hebrew has. And linguists aren't available in unlimited supply to travel the world and put together dictionaries and lexicons and record oral histories. That's where things such as a language-specific version of Wikipedia come in. Which brings us back to Pitkern. Pitkern is slowly dying, and some people even want to get rid of the small Pitkern-language version of Wikipedia. Completed coursework Rotterdam Business School! Some of the reasons to kill the Pitkern Wikipedia are the same as reasons for essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, fighting to keep the language alive: it's mostly spoken, without much literature; it's losing speakers to how do i find peer reviewed articles durham university, a surrounding dominant English culture. Anyway, it looks a lot like a dialect of English with some Tahitian influence. Oh, yeah. That's the other thing. essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster! Pitkern (also called Norfuk) is a creole, a mix of English and Tahitian, and it's been around for just about essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, 200 years. Have you heard of the Mutiny on the Bounty? In 1789, a group of sailors on the ship Bounty , led by Fletcher Christian, mutinied against essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster Captain William Bligh. This actually happened, not just in movies. Some of the mutineers, along with some Tahitians, settled on Pitcairn Island; in 1856, some of their descendants took over an abandoned penal colony on Norfolk Island (3,900 miles to essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, the west), and the rest remained on Pitcairn. The two languages blended into something that still has a lot of resemblance to English. Or, as the Pitkern article on Pitcairn Island puts it, "T' ofishol laenghwij f' ai Pitkern Ailen es Pitkern. Pitkern (tuu Norfuk) es a'langgwidc tat es spokn i' Norfuk ailen tuu. Es a' miks a' oel Inglish en Tahityan laenghwij, wi' Inglish maeken mor enfluens." Read that out critical thinking journal rossall school, loud and it will sound very much like, "The official language of the Pitcairn Islands is Pitkern. Pitkern (also Norfuk) is essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, a language that is spoken in Norfolk Island too. It's a mix of old English and Tahitian language, with English making more influence." Do you feel the same about Pitkern now? Why or why not? The Pitkern language doesn't preserve knowledge from time immemorial, true. But it does have two centuries of cultural history behind it. It may look a lot like a respelled version of English, but it's not actually identical, and it's an expression of a different perspective, a mark of essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster a distinctive culture. And it's interesting linguistic data. Besides, many endangered languages are similar to other languages, sometimes as similar to a non-endangered language as Pitkern is essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, to English. Completed coursework Rotterdam Business School! That's often one reason they're endangered: It's so easy for their speakers to switch to the more dominant local language. And a creole is still a real language. One of the threatened languages National Geographic highlights is Mednyj Aleut, a creole formed from contact between Aleut and Russian. Being a creole doesn't make a language better or worse. It just means it has mixed origins. Beyond that, even if you think it's just a dialect, dialects are interesting too. People in some cities are very proud of their local version of English, with its particular accent and what is articles mercersburg academy, special words. Linguists get a lot of very interesting data from them. So what do we do with Pitkern? Even if they're mostly not helping much, no one from Pitcairn or Norfolk is essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, keeping anyone else from preserving the essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, language. And Wikipedia is free. If it's not too resource-consuming to preserve it, and completed coursework rotterdam business school, if there are people who want to essay writing powerpoint The University of Westminster, preserve it, why not?