Categorized among the early Shakespearean comedies, The Taming of the Shrew (c. 1590-91) has become one of the playwright's most controversial works. While Elizabethan audiences may have viewed the piece with amusement and approval, the story of the spirited, rebellious, and sharp-witted Katherina (Kate), forced by her father to marry the equally exuberant and willful Petruchio, generally fails to correspond to a modern sensibility of the proper bond between husband and wife. Learn to write essays Stonar School?
The tactics by which Petruchio transforms Katherina's obstinacy into obedience, as well as the drama's undercurrent of violence and cruelty, are perceived by many critics as unsettling in a play principally concerned with marriage. Whereas nineteenth-century commentators dismissed the drama as a simple farce of little serious consequence, modern scholars find much in the play that merits serious study. Many critics have endeavored to essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
explicate the troubling elements of the play, and how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
are particularly interested in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Katherina's apparent submission to how to write a better essay besant hill school,
her husband in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the play's final act. Summarizing its enigmatic appeal, Oxford Shakespeare editor H. J. Oliver (1982) observes the ways in which Shakespeare transformed and improved upon his numerous sources for The Taming of the Shrew to fashion a piece that, despite certain limitations, fascinates with its intriguing subject: the clash of sexes.
Contemporary character-based studies of The Taming of the Shrew have almost invariably focused on the how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
drama's central and dominating figures, Katherina and Petruchio. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
This volatile relationship is the subject of Ruth Nevo's (1980) appraisal, which emphasizes the descriptive writing essay grier school
dynamics of ‚Äúsexual battle‚ÄĚ that drive the how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
play. Nevo dissects the how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
fundamental subject of The Taming of the Shrew ‚ÄĒlocating a suitable mate for essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the ‚Äúwild, intractable and shrewish daughter of Baptista‚ÄĚ‚ÄĒand the conflict of wills that ensues. Descriptive writing essay Grier School?
Analyzing Petruchio's verbal strategies in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
wooing and taming his wife, Nevo observes that Katherina largely responds to his cues, and learn to write essays stonar school
suggests that the play steadily informs us that by its final act Kate is truly in love with her husband. Other critics have taken a wider, social view of Katherina's taming. Velvet D. Descriptive writing essay Grier School?
Pearson (1990) sees the process of subduing Baptista's eldest daughter on stage as a barometer of changing social attitudes toward women from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries, ranging from a traditional view of Katherina and Petruchio as two individuals learning to descriptive writing essay grier school,
love one another to a more modern vision that champions Katherina's assertiveness and intellectual freedom. Harriet A. Deer (1991), while acknowledging that the play presents a strongly chauvinist subtext, argues that in The Taming of the Shrew Shakespeare creatively undercut conventional stereotypes associated with the shrew and braggart figures, which provide the theatrical basis for Katherina's and Petruchio's characters, in order to reveal the deeply patriarchal suppositions of Elizabethan marriage.
Despite its potentially disturbing representation of gender conflict, The Taming of the Shrew continues to be one of Shakespeare's most frequently performed comedies. Charles Isherwood's evaluates the 1999 Public Theater production staged in New York City's Central Park, directed by Mel Shapiro. Isherwood finds this performance, which primarily appealed to learn to write essays stonar school,
low humor with an essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
unyielding silliness and multitude of crude jokes, an affront to the emotional complexities of Shakespeare's characters and story. While Isherwood admires Allison Janney's outstanding Katherina, he laments Shapiro's overall disregard for the emotional subtleties of the drama in favor of eye-catching comic additions. Similarly, Ben Brantley (1999) finds Richard Rees's 1999 Williamstown Theater Festival production of The Taming of the Shrew disappointing. For Brantley, one of the saving elements of this ‚Äúfast, furious, and overstuffed interpretation‚ÄĚ was Bebe Neuwirth's convincingly performed Katherina. Personal writing essay Rossall School?
Elysa Gardner (2000) praises director Victoria Liberatori's musically enhanced Taming of the Shrew set in a retro, 1970s style and performed by the Princeton Repertory Theater in 2000. Gardner contends that this seemingly odd setting offered an excellent commentary on the play by evoking the online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
sexual revolution and the women's rights movement. Lastly, D. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
J. R. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
Bruckner (2001) comments on how to write a community service essay cheltenham college,
Liz Shipman's use of the critically contentious induction scene that opens The Taming of the Shrew in her 2001 production with the King County Shakespeare Company. Bruckner finds nearly all of Shipman's directorial interpretations beneficial to essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
the drama and approves of the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Recent thematic criticism regarding The Taming of the Shrew has generally focused on two key topics: transformation and the socially dictated roles of women. Jeanne Addison Roberts (1983) explores the theme of metamorphosis in the play, beginning with its induction scene and the mock conversion of the drunken tinker Christopher Sly into a nobleman. Roberts goes on to study the pervasive imagery of transformation in the play, such as the emblematic transformation of a married couple into a single entity represented by a hermaphrodite, and the personal writing essay rossall school
symbolic metamorphosis of humans into animals‚ÄĒparticularly the association between woman and how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
horse. Approaching the transformation theme from a sharply contrasting perspective, Barry Weller (1992) studies the problematic relationship between The Taming of the Shrew 's induction and main plot. Noting that Christopher Sly's dream induction to the drama is rife with allusions to theatricality, Weller suggests that Katherina's ostensible metamorphosis from essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
assertive shrew to servile wife, when viewed through this frame, should be regarded with at essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
least a degree of skepticism. Shifting to issues of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
gender in The Taming of the Shrew, Erika Gottlieb (1986) considers Katherina's rebellious actions in the play as a kind of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
ideological assault on the Great Chain of Being, a traditional hierarchical structure that dominated early modern thinking. While Katherina rails against her social placement below man in this scheme, Gottlieb observes that Shakespeare's final statement on the matter remains ambivalent. Gary Schneider (2002) presents a feminist-materialist assessment of the social world depicted in The Taming of the Shrew. Schneider maintains that in the play, the theater becomes a site of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
‚Äúsocial control‚ÄĚ where Katherina becomes the mouthpiece for essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
patriarchal rhetoric. According to Schneider, Katherina's final speech is meant to essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
act as a kind of sermon that encourages the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
female audience members to learn to write essays stonar school,
exhibit proper behavior.
SOURCE: Oliver, H. J. Introduction to The Oxford Shakespeare: ‚ÄúThe Taming of the Shrew,‚ÄĚ edited by H. J. Oliver, pp. Personal writing essay Rossall School?
1-76. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
[ In the following excerpted introduction to The Taming of the online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
Shrew, Oliver surveys the play's sources, style, themes, structure, and characterization. ]
THE STORY OF CHRISTOPHER SLY.
No one source for the ‚ÄėInduction‚Äô of The Taming of the Shrew has yet been found, and none need be sought: Shakespeare may well have first heard at his mother's knee some version of the universal tale of how a sleeper or drunken man, when he awoke to find himself dressed in fine clothes, was deceived into believing that he was really a lord, or of some such high rank, and essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
that what he thought to how to write a community service essay cheltenham college,
be his memories of his earlier life were delusions. The form of the story most widely known today is that in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
The Arabian Nights, where the Caliph Haroun al Raschid plays the trick on Abu Hassan (and although The Arabian Nights as such was not known in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Europe until the eighteenth century, it is perhaps worth recalling that the stories in it may have been collected as early as the fourteenth and in origin may go back many centuries before that).
Discussion of Shakespeare's acquiring of this fable was put on the wrong track years ago when Thomas Warton stated in his History of English Poetry (1774-81) that Shakespeare found the story in a collection of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
prose tales made by Richard Edwards in 1570. Then in the papers of the Shakespeare Society in 1845, H. G. Norton, from loose printed leaves in his possession, published such a tale, calling it ‚ÄėThe Waking Mans Dreame‚Äô and assuming that it came from the book by Edwards, of which no copy had ever been seen. In 1913 A. E. Thiselton demonstrated that the tale printed by Norton supposedly from Edwards's (hypothetical) volume was in fact one of a collection of anecdotes, Admirable Events, translated by S. Du Verger from the French of J. P. Camus and not published until 1639; but this demonstration went almost unnoticed and the point had to be made again by Charles C. Mish in 1951. 1 The Edwards collection is apparently a ‚Äėghost‚Äô‚ÄĒbut it haunts many scholarly discussions of Shakespeare's sources written even since 1951.
It is, then, still necessary to say that no printed version of the story has been found earlier than Shakespeare's except the one in Latin by Heuterus, in De Rebus Burgundicis, 1584, which Shakespeare is not likely to have known: it was not translated into French, by Goulart, until about 1600, or into English until 1607, by Edward Grimeston. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
Grimeston's, the learn to write essays stonar school
version printed by Geoffrey Bullough in his Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 2 tells how Philip the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Good, Duke of Burgundy, found ‚Äėa certaine Artisan‚Äô very drunk in the street, had him carried home to the palace, dressed in fine clothes, conducted to the Mass, waited on there, taken hunting and hawking, and entertained with ‚Äėa pleasant Comedie‚Äô, before being carried back, drunk again, to where he was found. The tale is descriptive writing essay grier school
told in a completely different tone from how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
Shakespeare's, to draw moral lessons about learn to write essays stonar school,
the vanity of state‚ÄĒbut one suspects that if it were not safely dated 1607, somebody could long since have ‚Äėproved‚Äô by verbal parallels that Shakespeare used it. Perhaps some day an earlier translation will be found.
It may be difficult to name a source for the Sly scenes, but it is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
not difficult to appreciate them. From the moment of the entry of Sly and the Hostess‚ÄĒan opening sure to capture the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
attention of an descriptive writing essay grier school,
audience, particularly if Sly reels on to the stage as if he has been thrown out how to write a better essay besant hill school
of the alehouse‚ÄĒthe pace does not slacken. The tinker's drunken recalcitrance is caught in just a few sentences; his intellectual limitations are well established by his references to how to write a better essay besant hill school,
Richard Conqueror and Saint Jeronimy and by his fondness for the catch phrases from personal writing essay rossall school
The Spanish Tragedy. Within a few minutes the Lord and his train have come on, and their knowledgeable discussion of the hounds, in technically correct language‚ÄĒbut in only fourteen lines‚ÄĒhas made the necessary contrast with the peasant and has also added to the already convincing details of life in a ‚Äėreal‚Äô countryside. The plan to deceive Sly is how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
outlined in the firmest of how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management,
language‚ÄĒnoticeable particularly are the precise active verbs, ‚Äėtake him up‚Äô, ‚Äėcarry him‚Äô, ‚Äėhang it round‚Äô, ‚Äėbalm his foul head‚Äô, and so on‚ÄĒand the audience is eager to see what will happen. Not many plays have openings as competent, theatrically, as this: it is, albeit in a completely different tone, comparable with the magnificent beginning of the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
much later Othello.
The entry of the players provides further variety in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
stage ‚Äėaction‚Äô before plans are worked out both for essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
their share in descriptive writing essay grier school
the tricking of Sly and for learn to write essays stonar school
the share of the page who is to be Sly's wife. The exchange about how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management,
Soto makes a private joke with the audience and so helps to maintain its feeling of complicity, in however small a way. Sly is brought forward again, ‚Äėaloft‚Äô, and the interest now is in the psychological changes as he is faced with the new situation. The first mood, after he wakes calling ‚ÄėFor God's sake, a pot of small ale‚Äô, is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the surliness, the truculence that has already been seen: ‚Äėcall not me ‚Äúhonour‚ÄĚ nor ‚Äúlordship‚ÄĚ. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
I ne'er drank sack in my life ‚Ä¶ Ne'er ask me what raiment I'll wear ‚Ä¶‚Äô and so on. Surliness is succeeded by plain anger, that he should be made a victim of what he naturally assumes to be their mockery of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
him: ‚ÄėWhat, would you make me mad? Am not I Christopher Sly ‚Ä¶ ?‚Äô (and there follows the sequence of local allusions, to ‚ÄėBurton-heath‚Äô and Marian Hacket and Wincot, which certainly builds up ‚Äėatmosphere‚Äô, even if Shakespeare is amusing himself at the same time). Then there is a period while the others talk at Sly, and he remains silent and how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
presumably perplexed; when he does speak, it is to announce his decision to online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school,
make the best of it and enjoy both the small ale (he is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
still, of course, continually giving himself away) and the company of his ‚Äėlady‚Äô. As Hazlitt delightedly‚ÄĒand delightfully‚ÄĒput it, ‚Äėwe have a great predilection‚Äô for him. 3.
Detailed comment would be superfluous on Sly's guarded dialogue with the servants, or his blunder over the aristocratic way to address a wife (‚Äė‚ÄúAl'ce madam‚ÄĚ, or ‚ÄúJoan madam‚ÄĚ? ‚Ä¶ Madam wife, they say ‚Ä¶‚Äô) or his willingness to watch the comedy to be played before him, though he is none too sure what a comedy is. There is, however, some need for comment on the search for ‚Äėmeaning‚Äô in the Sly section, and essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
on its dramatic function.
Whereas once there would have been general agreement with F. A. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
Marshall's opinion that The Taming of the Shrew ‚Äėis the one of Shakespeare's plays most devoid of serious interest, not excepting the Comedy of Errors ', 4 it has become orthodoxy to claim to find in the Induction the same ‚Äėtheme‚Äô as is to be found in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
both the Bianca and the Katherine-Petruchio plots of the main play and to take it for granted that identity of theme is a merit and ‚Äėjustifies‚Äô the introduction of Sly. Such a claim is seen in descriptive writing essay grier school
its extreme form in the statement that the three segments of the play ‚Äėare all linked in idea because all contain discussion of the relations of the sexes in marriage‚Äô. 5 So do Othello, and Hamlet, and personal writing essay rossall school
Macbeth, and even King Lear. The situation is not saved by the statements that The Shrew deals with ‚Äėdifferent ways of wooing and how to write a better essay besant hill school
holding a wife‚Äô and portrays ‚Äėdifferent kinds of wives and husbands. The Shrew becomes thereby a drama with more social and intellectual substance than The Comedy of Errors, but in presenting shrewishness and preaching morality it resembles that play.‚Äô 6 What The Shrew has to say about wooing a wife can be‚ÄĒand in the play itself is‚ÄĒput in a few sentences; and if one were to read the comedy‚ÄĒor The Comedy of Errors or for that matter any early Shakespearian comedy‚ÄĒfor its ‚Äėsocial and intellectual substance‚Äô or to see what it preaches, then‚ÄĒif Dr Johnson's famous phrase about online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school,
reading the novels of Samuel Richardson for the story may be adapted‚ÄĒ‚Äėyour impatience would be so much fretted that you would hang yourself‚Äô. How to write a community service essay Cheltenham College?
If, as Meredith said in his Essay on Comedy, the test of true comedy is that it should awaken thoughtful laughter, probably The Taming of the Shrew qualifies‚ÄĒbut only just.
It is also debatable whether discussion is much advanced by the more widely held theories that the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Induction, the Bianca story, and the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
taming form a unified play because each deals with ‚Äėassumptions about identity‚Äô and ‚Äėassumptions about personality‚Äô. 7 An alternative version is online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
that the plots are all based on ‚Äėsupposes‚Äô‚ÄĒthe ‚Äėcounterfeit supposes‚Äô of 5.1.106, with the implied reference to Gascoigne's Supposes, the source of the Bianca plot. How to write a better essay Besant Hill School?
8 Such theories seem to derive from D. A. Stauffer's suggestion that the play demonstrates that people can become‚ÄĒor, indeed, are‚ÄĒwhat others think they are or treat them as being. Learn to write essays Stonar School?
Sly is compared with Katherine: ‚Äėthere is something deeper than humor, however, in Petruchio's calling Katherine affable, modest, and mild: in the outcome, thinking makes it so‚Äô. 9 Is it too late in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the day to insist that it is not ‚Äėthinking‚Äô that makes it so‚ÄĒneither Petruchio's nor Katherine's‚ÄĒand that Sly does not become what others pretend him to be?
The terms used in all these interpretations are far too wide: the sense in which Sly (for the minute) ‚Äėassumes a new personality‚Äô is quite different from the sense in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
which Kate is thought to assume one. Does she in fact ever assume one? Perhaps she merely learns that in certain circumstances certain kinds of behaviour do not work. Bianca, of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
course, does not assume a new personality at all: Lucentio finally sees her in her true colours, as the audience, if it has any acuity or theatrical experience, will have predicted from the first scene in which she appears. Assumptions about identity and assumptions about personality may be wildly different things. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
And it is simply not true that ‚ÄėSly's story is in effect ‚Äúfinished‚ÄĚ when, like Kate, he has been persuaded to accept a new personality‚Äô. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
10 He remains in the play after that, to watch a comedy‚ÄĒand not only to watch it but also to comment on it: ‚Äė'Tis a very excellent piece of work, madam lady: would 'twere done!‚Äô‚ÄĒand Sly's attitude to the play within the play is learn to write essays stonar school
crucial to the attitude to it of the audience in the ‚Äėreal‚Äô theatre. The Sly Induction does not so much announce the theme of the enclosed stories as establish their tone.
There are many reasons for telling a story indirectly or putting it within a framework‚ÄĒas, for example, a play can be enclosed within a play. Sometimes, as in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Defoe, the main tale is wrapped up in discussion about the narrator, and the author's knowledge of the veracity of the narrator and so on, as a kind of camouflage, with the aim of causing a reader to quibble, if at how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
all, about what does not matter so that the main story will remain unchallenged. It is how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
a method of making the enclosed story more realistic, more credible. Something similar, although far more sophisticated, is seen in the novels of, say, Joseph Conrad; if Conrad tells us about Marlow who helps with others to tell us about Lord Jim (or Kurtz, in Heart of Darkness ), it is, partly, that we may believe more readily in the ‚Äėtruth‚Äô of the story and also that attention may be given to the analysis of the complex moral issues that the story raises: Marlow's opinion, among others, is accepted, rejected or modified by the reader only because he for descriptive writing essay grier school
the minute accepts the ‚Äėreality‚Äô of both Marlow and Jim. The moral or intellectual debate in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
a sense presupposes the reality of the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
characters. Online article writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School?
Similarly, in a less complex and descriptive writing essay grier school
indeed unsophisticated use of the technique, a film or play will start with an ‚ÄėI remember‚Äô followed by a dramatization of what is remembered‚ÄĒthe aim again being greater conviction.
More often, however, the how to write a better essay besant hill school
‚Äėenclosing‚Äô technique works in exactly the opposite way. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
If in a film the characters go to personal writing essay rossall school,
see a film, the film they see is online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
quite remote: it is at one further move from the ‚Äėreality‚Äô of the audience in the ‚Äėreal‚Äô cinema. Similarly if a play on a small scale is put within a play, what happens in the enclosed play is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
not ‚Äėbelieved‚Äô at all. Examples would be ‚ÄėThe Mousetrap‚Äô in Hamlet and ‚ÄėPyramus and Thisbe‚Äô in A Midsummer Night's Dream ‚ÄĒboth of which, of course, are further ‚Äėdistanced‚Äô by other methods and notably by a deliberately artificial and old fashioned style. Since, however, these are short and in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
some ways special, it may be better to look for a parallel to the technique of The Shrew in a play in which the enclosed story is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the longer and the enclosing story apparently no more than a way of introducing it. Just such a play is George Peele's The Old Wives Tale, the exact date of which is uncertain but which undoubtedly belongs within a few years of The Shrew. In Peele's play as in Shakespeare's the learn to write essays stonar school
audience is introduced in the Induction to realistically drawn rustics who are contrasted with more aristocratic and intellectual types; and essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Peele's delightfully down-to-earth Old Wife, Madge, begins to tell a typical old wife's tale which is then, as it were, acted out for her by essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the players, with all the inconsecutiveness and the crossed lines of the story as it would be if she told it. And, of how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management,
course, we do not ‚Äėbelieve‚Äô a word of it, and have been told not to believe it‚ÄĒand enjoy it the more. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
The Taming of the Shrew is in some ways very similar: the enclosed story is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
not told by an uninformed and unimaginative rustic but it is put on to amuse one; we ‚Äėbelieve‚Äô in personal writing essay rossall school
Sly but do not really believe in Lucentio, or Bianca‚ÄĒor Petruchio. The phenomenon of theatrical illusion is itself being laughed at; and the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
play within the play makes Sly drowsy and probably soon sends him to sleep. Are we to let that play ‚Äėpreach morality‚Äô to us or look in online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
it for ‚Äėsocial and intellectual substance‚Äô? The drunken tinker may be believed in as one believes in any realistically presented character; but we cannot ‚Äėbelieve‚Äô in something that is not even mildly interesting to him. The play within the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
play has been presented only after all the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
preliminaries have encouraged us to online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school,
take it as a farce (meaning by that not slapstick, but a broader kind of comedy not involving ‚Äėengagement‚Äô with the characters). We have been warned.
Why, then, having begun the Induction, might Shakespeare have decided not to continue with it to the end; or‚ÄĒwhat is descriptive writing essay grier school
for this purpose much the same question‚ÄĒif he did at first continue with it, in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
a form of which A Shrew gives us some idea, albeit inadequate, why might he have changed his mind and decided to personal writing essay rossall school,
cut it short?
There are, in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the first place, some purely practical, theatrical, considerations that may have weighed with him. It has been suggested, for example, that there was a staging problem because the presence of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
Sly and the ‚Äėpresenters‚Äô ‚Äėaloft‚Äô made the use of the ‚Äėupper stage‚Äô for another purpose difficult; and the raised acting area does seem to essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
be needed again in 5.1 when, as F1 has it, the ‚Äė Pedant lookes out of the window ‚Äô (l. 2397). 11 There may be something in how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
this, although not enough is certain about the ‚Äėupper stage‚Äô in Elizabethan theatres for the argument to carry full conviction; it was not necessarily impossible to personal writing essay rossall school,
keep Sly's party well away from the ‚Äėwindow‚Äô required for the Pedant. (Conceivably the how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
form of the Induction in A Shrew, which has Sly on the main stage throughout, represents some intermediate, experimental version that tried to get over the problem of the differing uses of the area ‚Äėaloft‚Äô; alternatively, ‚Ä¶ the compilers of A Shrew‚ÄĒif they were thinking that the text they compiled might be acted by, for example, touring companies‚ÄĒmay have had in online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
mind the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
limitations of how to write a community service essay cheltenham college,
stages and essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
theatres other than those for which the Shakespeare play was written.)
The staging would not seem to have been so difficult as to make necessary by itself the decision not to continue the Sly story after Act I Scene I. A greater difficulty was, perhaps, casting, although again it cannot be said that an Elizabethan company could not have coped with the problems of the full framework (including in how to write a better essay besant hill school
that phrase both the carrying through of Sly's comments as in A Shrew and the alternative possibility of leaving him and others, even though they remain silent, in view of the audience throughout). If the actors of Sly, the Lord, and the Page in personal writing essay rossall school
the Induction are not available to play other roles, then The Taming of the descriptive writing essay grier school
Shrew requires a cast of sixteen to learn to write essays stonar school,
play named parts (plus a few odd servants), of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
whom at least four would be boys (the Page, Kate, Bianca, the Widow)‚ÄĒfive if a boy played Biondello; and it may have been necessary‚ÄĒif the company could not rise to this number‚ÄĒto introduce some doubling, not merely by ending the how to write a better essay besant hill school
Sly story when it does end in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
the Folio text but also by getting him and his fellow presenters off the stage altogether. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
12 One caveat may be entered: it has perhaps been too readily assumed that because the Lord remains on the stage with Sly in A Shrew, he must remain with Sly, if Sly remains, in The Shrew. This is not so. Online article writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School?
The Lord could leave the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
Induction for the last time at 2.114 and how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
be available for Vincentio or any other role thereafter, unless he is how to write a better essay besant hill school
made to be the ‚ÄėMessenger‚Äô of Induction 2.125.1 (itself involving an almost impossibly rapid change of costume) and also the ‚Äė1. Man. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
‚Äô who is one of the ‚ÄėPresenters‚Äô still watching the play at the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
end of 1.1. 13 If these two very minor roles are given to how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management,
a minor actor or hired man, then only Sly and the descriptive writing essay grier school
boy-Page-‚Äėwife‚Äô are being ‚Äėwasted‚Äô if they are kept on stage; but certainly if they are removed from the view of the audience, ‚ÄėSly‚Äô can play the descriptive writing essay grier school
Pedant later, and the boy can play the Widow in the final scene. 14 (Perhaps it should be added‚ÄĒin view of some rather wild theorizing about Sly's ‚Äėdream‚Äô‚ÄĒthat the actor playing Sly cannot conceivably play Petruchio if the Folio text is adhered to; Sly must ‚Äėsit and marke‚Äô, at least for a while, and the very first thing he is required to mark is the entrance of Petruchio. 15 ) William Ringler's analysis of The Two Gentlemen of Verona, however, has suggested that Shakespeare as a young dramatist did not always use his actors economically, and has shown that he probably could count on how to write a better essay besant hill school,
twelve adult actors and four boys if he really needed them. It may therefore be wiser to look beyond the casting, as well as the stage, for explanations of the dramatist's final preference for online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
the ‚Äėincomplete‚Äô framework and to consider the possibility that the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
final form of the play is in fact the better for aesthetic reasons.
If what has been argued earlier in how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
this Introduction is correct, the main purpose of the Induction was to set the tone for the play-within-the-play‚ÄĒin particular, to present the personal writing essay rossall school
story of Kate and her sister as a none-too-serious comedy put on to essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
divert a drunken tinker. The artificial style of the beginning of 1.1 is perhaps further indication that we are not expected to become too involved in the Lucentio‚ÄĒBianca‚ÄĒdisguises plot; we are told that it more or less put Sly to sleep; and only then are we invited to watch also Petruchio's campaign to tame the shrew. As that tale goes on and especially when Kate is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
introduced, it gradually changes key and how to write a better essay besant hill school
it does become, for a while, more realistic and convincing (and an attempt will be made later to justify this claim); but it never for long loses its basically farcical character, and it ends, perfectly logically for a farce, with the shrew not only tamed but also prepared to instruct the untamed wives on the social desirability of tameness. That last scene has been taken literally by, for example, G. I. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
Duthie, who wrote that ‚ÄėWhat Shakespeare emphasizes here is the foolishness of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
trying to how to write a better essay besant hill school,
destroy order‚Äô. 16 He can take such a view, however, only because for him the Induction is finally irrelevant (indeed, in this discussion he does not so much as mention its existence); for him, all the learn to write essays stonar school
hints about essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
the nature of theatrical illusion have been in vain; because Kate is straightfaced, he believes what she has said. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
Others, holding that ‚Äėthe best in this kind are but shadows‚Äô, as Shakespeare was to put it later, and remembering that this particular shadow was for the amusement of a shadow, will have their doubts.
The play as it stands is, in modern jargon, ‚Äėopen-ended‚Äô‚ÄĒand it is made not more ‚Äėopen‚Äô but less so by having Sly, in how to write a better essay besant hill school
a final scene, convinced that he now knows how to tame a shrew and by having Sly's friend not so sure. The reintroduction of the online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
presenters would also, as has been suggested by several modern critics, run the descriptive writing essay grier school
risk of anticlimax and, one might add, of seeming to gild the lily. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
One does not improve a farce by ending it with the reminder that it may have been only a farce; far better to let the how to write a better essay besant hill school
audience make that judgement, if it wishes to make it.
Perhaps Shakespeare first tried the play with the full Sly framework, perhaps he did not; but at least one can say that he seems to have had very good reasons for learn to write essays stonar school
his apparent decision to leave it ‚Äėincomplete‚Äô as it is now in the approved text and (probably) to get Sly out online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
of view of the audience early in descriptive writing essay grier school
the play and let them forget him‚ÄĒuntil perhaps they have left the theatre and have time to wonder what happened to him and even, perhaps, what has happened to them.
THE BIANCA SUBPLOT AND ‚ÄėSUPPOSES‚Äô
At least there is no dispute about the main source for the part of The Taming of the descriptive writing essay grier school
Shrew that deals with Bianca and her suitors. Shakespeare even alludes to it, and learn to write essays stonar school
paraphrases it, when he has Lucentio reveal his identity, with the words:
The source was George Gascoigne's Supposes. Its title-page describes it as ‚Äėa Comedie written in the Italian tongue by Ariosto Englished by George Gascoygne of Grayes Inne Esquire, and there presented 1566‚Äô (and there is an apparent record of a later private performance at Oxford, in Trinity College, in January 1582 18 ). Gascoigne was translating Ariosto's I Suppositi in the original prose version in which it was acted at how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
Ferrara in 1509 and at the Vatican in 1519 (although he may have known also Ariosto's rewriting of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
it in verse) and his translation is thought to be the first English drama in prose (it anticipates Lyly by nearly twenty years). Gascoigne's play was easily available to Shakespeare, particularly in the collections The Posies of G. Gascoigne (1575) 19 and The Whole Woorkes of G. Gascoigne (1587).
In the Ariosto-Gascoigne story, Erostrato [Shakespeare's Lucentio], after falling in love at first sight, has enjoyed for some time a secret liaison with Polynesta [Shakespeare's Bianca], daughter of Damon [Baptista]. Erostrato is able to arrange meetings because in disguise he has been employed by Damon as a servant, Dulipo, while Erostrato's real servant Dulipo [Tranio] pretends to be the master Erostrato. The feigned Erostrato pretends to woo the girl, as a way of frustrating a rival suitor, the aged Cleander [Gremio]. These two try to outbid each other with offers of personal writing essay rossall school,
lavish dowries; and to support his claim Erostrato persuades a travelling stranger [the Pedant] to impersonate his real father Philogano [Vincentio]. Erostrato arranges this both by pretending that because of a ducal decision it is dangerous for a Sienese to be found in Ferrara and by offering protection if the stranger will impersonate the father. Matters come to a head when Polynesta is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
found to be pregnant (Shakespeare altered this, of course: he obviously wanted for his second female character one who to appearance had all the marks of the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
romantic heroine). Dulipo is put into a dungeon (too ‚Äėserious‚Äô a fate for Shakespeare's kind of comedy); from Sicily 20 arrives ‚Äėthe right Philogano the right father of the right Erostrato‚Äô, to find both that Dulipo is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
impersonating Erostrato and that a stranger is impersonating Erostrato's father, namely himself; but finally all is solved, and essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
true identities revealed, and Cleander [Gremio] even discovers that Dulipo is the son he lost long ago after the battle of Otranto (and Shakespeare chose to avoid that improbability, which adds nothing of import to the story). For one character who looms large in how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
the source but hardly affects the action‚ÄĒthe typical parasite of classical comedy, Pasiphilo‚ÄĒShakespeare found no place at all; not did his Bianca (since she was not pregnant) need a confidant-nurse. His main addition, which perhaps he saw as an alternative to these superfluous characters, was to complicate the action by giving Bianca a third suitor, Hortensio; and then‚ÄĒon second thoughts, if the argument of the earlier part of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
this Introduction is correct‚ÄĒhe complicated it further by having Hortensio assume the disguise of Litio to compete with Erostrato/Lucentio in disguise as Cambio. In short, he added still more ‚Äėsupposes‚Äô to those of which Gascoigne already thought so highly that he put notes in the margin pointing them out lest the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
reader should miss any. 21.
Gascoigne, as part of a whole series of quibbles on his title, explained in his ‚ÄėPrologue or Argument‚Äô: ‚ÄėBut understand, this our Suppose is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
nothing else but a mystaking or imagination of one thing for an other. For you shall see the master supposed for personal writing essay rossall school
the servant, the servant for online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
the master: the freeman for a slave, and the bondslave for a freeman: the stranger for a well knowen friend, and the familiar for a stranger.‚Äô His audience is essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
kept amused by descriptive writing essay grier school
the misconceptions of the characters‚ÄĒas in how to teach writing an essay les roches marbella international school of hotel management
the Plautine comedies of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
which Supposes is a direct descendant 22 ‚ÄĒand is not invited (unless it be by the strong suspicion of irony in the Prologue and the marginal notes) to how to write a community service essay cheltenham college,
wonder if it has misconceptions of its own. The interest, in short, is not in characterization but in plot, the audience watching to personal writing essay rossall school,
see what happens next and how the knots are untied.
The Bianca section of Shakespeare's play, for the most part, is no different. 23 It is the kind of comedy that he attempted also in The Comedy of Errors, with its two pairs of essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
identical twins (this time beginning from how to write a community service essay cheltenham college
Plautus' Mostellaria ); he attempted it again‚ÄĒalbeit in a very different tone‚ÄĒin the parts of A Midsummer Night's Dream that follow from the anointing of the wrong lover's eyes with the juice of the magic flower, so that Demetrius and Lysander are temporarily infatuated with the wrong women. Being Shakespeare, he carried it off. A reader's head sometimes spins as he tries to remember whether Lucentio is Cambio or Litio and momentarily confuses the names of Grumio and Gremio‚ÄĒbut in learn to write essays stonar school
the theatre all is clear, and the personal writing essay rossall school
pace of the action is well maintained. Indeed it is increased towards the end and descriptive writing essay grier school
particularly in 5.1, where one seeming disaster after another falls on the bewildered Vincentio: he himself is being impersonated by how to write a better essay besant hill school
a complete stranger; his son Lucentio's servant Biondello claims never to have seen him before; the other servant Tranio, whom he brought up in his own house, claims to be Lucentio; and for all this he, Vincentio, is threatened with imprisonment, until the problem is solved by Biondello's unfortunate entrance (unfortunate for Biondello) with Lucentio and Bianca, and his prompt exit with Tranio and the false father ‚Äėas fast as may be‚Äô. Descriptive writing essay Grier School?
It is all very fast indeed.
Interestingly, it is in this scene that Shakespeare seems to have worked most closely from Gascoigne. essay writing meaning Kingís Ely?
He even borrows such a small detail as having the real father knock in vain at the door for admittance to his own son's dwelling and be greeted by a stranger looking out of the window (although in Supposes the stranger is a servant and not the feigned father). How to write a community service essay Cheltenham College?
There are also verbal reminiscences, albeit of commonplace phrases. One example is Philogano's ‚ÄėWhat hast thou done with my son villain?‚Äô; Vincentio's ‚ÄėTell me, thou villain, where is my son ‚Ä¶ ?‚Äô with the same expressed fear that the descriptive writing essay grier school
son has been murdered by his former servant. Another is Gascoigne's Philogano to his own servant: ‚ÄėDo you not know me?‚Äô ‚ÄėAs farre as I remember Sir, I never saw you before‚Äô; Shakespeare's Vincentio: ‚ÄėWhat, have you forgot me?‚Äô ‚ÄėForgot you? No, sir. I could not forget you, for how to write a better essay besant hill school
I never saw you before in all my life.‚Äô
This last example, with its improvement on Gascoigne in its colloquial tone and the balance of its calculated repetitions, is sufficient warning against equating Shakespeare with his sources. It is also noticeable how he avoids the traps into which others fall: he will not slow up the scene just discussed, for instance, or falsify its tone, by introducing passages of self-pity amounting to attempted pathos, such as ‚ÄėAlas, who shall relieve my miserable estate? to essay writing meaning Kingís Ely,
whom shall I complaine? ‚Ä¶ Alas, you might have some compassion of mine age ‚Ä¶‚Äô. Nevertheless it remains true that it is online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
the Gascoigne kind of comedy that he is writing in the Bianca scenes; and (although a few caveats to this judgement will be entered later, in the general discussion of the essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
style) he does not attempt to alter that kind by essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
elevating or enriching the language. It would not have been an improvement for Bianca to speak or be described in essay writing meaning Kingís Ely
genuinely romantic terms; on the contrary, she must be seen, at first, as nothing but the conventional heroine sought by the hero of fiction, and in this capacity she will be contrasted with another type of how to write a better essay besant hill school,
woman, at first much less attractive, her spirited ‚Äėreal-life‚Äô sister Kate.
Shakespeare is not content, however, to leave it at how to write a better essay besant hill school
that. He does not merely contrast one sister with another: he uses the younger as part of the explanation of the how to write a better essay besant hill school
acquired shrewishness of the elder, and online article writing st. john's-ravenscourt school
so‚ÄĒfor better or worse‚ÄĒalso uses Bianca in a.
(The entire section is 12662 words.)
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