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act writing essay Bournemouth University

- as presented by John Oswald to the Wired Society Electro-Acoustic Conference in Toronto in act writing essay Bournemouth University 1985. Musical instruments produce sounds. Composers produce music. Musical instruments reproduce music. Tape recorders, radios, disc players, etc., reproduce sound. A device such as a wind-up music box produces sound and reproduces music. A phonograph in the hands of a hip hop/scratch artist who plays a record like an electronic washboard with a phonographic needle as a plectrum, produces sounds which are unique and not reproduced - the record player becomes a musical instrument. A sampler, in essence a recording, transforming instrument, is simultaneously a documenting device and a creative device, in effect reducing a distinction manifested by copyright. These new-fangled, much-talked-about digital sound sampling devices, are, we are told, music mimics par excellence, able to render the whole orchestral panoply, plus all that grunts, or squeaks. The noun "sample" is, in our comodified culture, often pre-fixed by act writing essay Bournemouth University the adjective free, and if one is to consider predicating this subject, perhaps some thinking aloud on what is not allowable auditory appropriation is to history a level coursework ashville college, be heard. Some of act writing essay Bournemouth University you, current and potential samplerists, are perhaps curious about the extent to which you can legally borrow from the ingredients of original article writing sandy spring friends school other people's sonic manifestations. Is a musical property properly private, and if so, when and how does one trespass upon it? Like myself, you may covet something similar to a particular chord played and starting a persuasive essay auburn university recorded singularly well by act writing essay Bournemouth University the strings of the estimable Eastman Rochester Orchestra on act writing essay Bournemouth University a long-deleted Mercury Living Presence LP of Charles Ives' Symphony #3 1 , itself rampant in unauthorized procurements. Essay custom writing Marianapolis Preparatory School. Or imagine how invigorating a few retrograde Pygmy (no slur on primitivism intended) chants would sound in the quasi-funk section of act writing essay Bournemouth University your emulator concerto. Or perhaps you would simply like to act writing essay Bournemouth University, transfer an octave of hiccups from scholarship essay writing stanstead college, the stock sound library disk of act writing essay Bournemouth University a Mirage to the spring-loaded tape catapults of your Melotron 2 . Can the sounding materials that inspire composition be sometimes considered compositions themselves? Is the act writing essay Bournemouth University piano the musical creation of Bartolommeo Cristofori (1655-1731) or merely the vehicle engineered by him for Ludwig Van and others to manoeuver through their musical territory? Some memorable compositions were created specifically for act writing essay Bournemouth University, the digital recorder of that era, the music box. Are the preset sounds in today's sequencers and synthesizers free samples, or the good articles to write about sidcot school musical property of the manufacturer? 3 Is a timbre any less definably possessable than a melody? A composer who claims divine inspiration is scholarship essay writing stanstead college, perhaps exempt from act writing essay Bournemouth University, responsibility to this inventory of the layers of authorship. But what about the unblessed rest of act writing essay Bournemouth University us? Let's see what the history a level coursework ashville college powers that be have to say. Essay custom writing Marianapolis Preparatory School. 'Author' is copyrightspeak for any creative progenitor, no matter if they program software or compose hardcore. To wit: "An author is entitled to act writing essay Bournemouth University, claim authorship and to preserve the integrity of the work by restraining any distortion, mutilation or other modification that is prejudicial to the author's honor or reputation." That's called the 'right of integrity' and it's from the Canada Copyright Act 4 . A recently published report on the proposed revision of history a level coursework ashville college the Act uses the metaphor of land owners' rights, where unauthorized use is synonymous with trespassing. The territory is limited. Only recently have sound recordings been considered a part of this real estate. Blank tape is derivative, nothing of itself. Way back in 1976, ninety nine years after Edison went into the record business, the U.S. Copyright Act was revised to protect sound recordings in that country for the first time. Before this, only written music was considered eligible for act writing essay Bournemouth University, protection. Starting a persuasive essay Auburn University. Forms of music that were not intelligible to the human eye were deemed ineligible. The traditional attitude was that recordings were not artistic creations, "but mere uses or applications of creative works in the form of physical objects." 5. Some music oriented organizations still retain this 'view'. The current Canadian Act came into being in 1924, an electric eon later than the original U.S. Act of l909, and up here "copyright does subsist in records, perforated rolls and other contrivances by means of which sounds may be mechanically reproduced." Of course the capabilities of mechanical contrivances are now more diverse than anyone back at the turn of the century forecasted, but now the real headache for the writers of copyright is the new electronic contrivances, including digital samplers of sound and their accountant cousins, computers. act writing essay Bournemouth University. Among "the intimate cultural secretions of history a level coursework ashville college electronic, biological, and written communicative media" 6 the starting a persuasive essay auburn university electronic brain business is cultivating, by grace of its relative youth, pioneering creativity and a corresponding conniving ingenuity. act writing essay Bournemouth University. The popular intrigue of computer theft has inspired cinematic and paperback thrillers while the robbery of music is restricted to elementary poaching and blundering innocence. act writing essay Bournemouth University. The plots are trivial: Disney accuses Sony of conspiring with consumers to act writing essay Bournemouth University, make unauthorized mice 7 . Former Beatle George Harrison is found guilty of an indiscretion in act writing essay Bournemouth University choosing a vaguely familiar sequence of pitches. 8. The dubbing-in-the-privacy-of-your-own-home controversy is actually the act writing essay Bournemouth University tip of starting a persuasive essay auburn university a hot iceberg of rudimentary creativity. After decades of being the passive recipients of music in packages, listeners now have the means to assemble their own choices, to separate pleasures from the filler. They are dubbing a variety of sounds from around the world, or at least from the breadth of their record collections, making compilations of history a level coursework ashville college a diversity unavailable from the music industry, with its circumscribed stables of starting a persuasive essay auburn university artists, and an ever more pervasive policy of only supplying the act writing essay Bournemouth University common denominator. The Chiffons/Harrison case, and the general accountability of melodic originality, indicates a continuing concern for what amounts to the equivalent of a squabble over the patents to the Edison cylinder. The precarious commodity in act writing essay Bournemouth University music today is no longer the tune. A fan can recognize a hit from a ten millisecond burst, 9 faster than a Fairlight can whistle Dixie. Notes with their rhythm and pitch values are trivial components in the corporate harmonization of cacophony. Few pop musicians can read music with any facility. The Art of Noise, a studio based, mass market targeted recording firm, strings atonal arrays of act writing essay Bournemouth University timbres on the line of act writing essay Bournemouth University an ubiquitous beat. The Emulator fills the bill. History a level coursework Ashville College. Singers with original material aren't studying Bruce Springsteen's melodic contours, they're trying to sound just like him. And sonic impersonation is quite legal. While performing rights organizations continue to act writing essay Bournemouth University, farm for original article writing sandy spring friends school, proceeds for tunesters and poetricians, those who are shaping the way the buck says the music should be, rhythmatists, timbralists and mixologists under various monikers, have rarely been given compositional credit. 10. At what some would like to consider the opposite end of the field, among academics and the salaried technicians of the orchestral swarms, an orderly display of fermatas and hemidemisemiquavers on a page is still often thought indispensible to a definition of act writing essay Bournemouth University music, even though some earnest composers rarely if ever peck these things out anymore. Of course, if appearances are necessary, a computer program and printer can do it for them. Musical language has an extensive repertoire of punctuation devices but nothing equivalent to literature's " " quotation marks. Jazz musicians do not wiggle two fingers of scholarship essay writing stanstead college each hand in the air, as lecturers often do, when cross referencing during their extemporizations, because on most instruments this would present some technical difficulties - plummeting trumpets and such. Without a quotation system, well-intended correspondences cannot be distinguished from plagiarism and act writing essay Bournemouth University fraud. But anyway, the quoting of notes is act writing essay Bournemouth University, but a small and insignificant portion of common appropriation. Am I underestimating the good articles to write about sidcot school value of melody writing? Well, I expect that before long we'll have marketable expert tune writing software which will be able to generate the banalities of catchy permutations of act writing essay Bournemouth University the diatonic scale in endless arrays of tuneable tunes, from which a not necessarily affluent songwriter can choose; with perhaps a built-in checking lexicon of used-up tunes which would advise Beatle George 11 not to make the same blunder again. Some composers have long considered the tape recorder a musical instrument capable of act writing essay Bournemouth University more than the steps in writing an argumentative essay marian catholic high school faithful hi-fi transcriber role to act writing essay Bournemouth University, which manufacturers have traditionally limted its function. Now there are hybrids of the electronic offspring of acoustic instruments and audio mimicry by the digital clones of tape recorders. Audio mimicry by digital means is nothing new; mechanical manticores from the 19th century with names like the Violano-virtuoso and the Orchestrion are quaintly similar to the Synclavier Digital Music System and the Fairlight CMI (computer music instrument). In the case of the Synclavier, what is act writing essay Bournemouth University, touted as a combination multi-track recording studio and starting a persuasive essay auburn university simulated symphony orchestra looks like a piano with a built-in accordian chordboard and LED clock radio. The composer who plucks a blade of grass and act writing essay Bournemouth University with cupped hands to pursed lips creates a vibrating soniferous membrane and resonator, although susceptible to comments on the order of "it's been done before", is in the potential position of bypassing previous technological achievement and communing directly with nature. Of music from tools, even the iconoclastic implements of a Harry Partch or a Hugh LeCaine are susceptible to act writing essay Bournemouth University, the convention of distinction between instrument and composition. Sounding utensils, from the erh-hu to the Emulator, have traditionally provided such a potential for varied expression that they have not in themselves been considered musical manifestations. This is contrary to the great popularity of generic instrumental music ("The Many Moods of 101 Strings", "Piano for Lovers", "The Truckers DX-7" etc.), not to mention instruments which play themselves, the scholarship essay writing stanstead college most pervasive example in recent years being pre-programmed rhythm boxes. History a level coursework Ashville College. Such devices, as are found in act writing essay Bournemouth University lounge acts and organ consoles, are direct kin to the juke box: push a button and out comes music. J.S.Bach pointed out that with any instrument "all one has to do is hit the right notes at the right time and the thing plays itself." The distinction between sound producers and sound reproducers is easily blurred, and has been a conceivable area of musical pursuit at original article writing sandy spring friends school, least since John Cage's use of radios in the Forties. Just as sound producing and sound reproducing technology becomes more interactive, listeners are once again, if not invited, nonetheless encroaching upon creative territory. This prerogative has been largely forgotten in recent decades. act writing essay Bournemouth University. The now primitive record-playing generation was a passive lot (indigenous active form scratch belongs to original article writing sandy spring friends school, the post-disc, blaster/walkman era). Gone were the history a level coursework ashville college days of lively renditions on the parlor piano. Computers can take the expertise out of amateur music making. A current music-minus-one program retards tempos and searches for the most ubiquitous chords to support the wanderings of a novice player. Some audio equipment geared for good articles to write about sidcot school, the consumer inadvertently offers interactive possibilities. But manufacturers have discouraged compatability between their amateur and pro equipment. Passivity is still the dominant demographic. Thus the atrophied microphone inputs which have now all but disappeared from premium stereo cassette decks. 12. As a listener my own preference is the option to experiment. My listening system has a mixer instead of a receiver, an infinitely variable speed turntable, filters, reverse capability, and a pair of ears. An active listener might speed up a piece of music in order to perceive more clearly its macrostructure, or slow it down to hear articulation and detail more precisely. History a level coursework Ashville College. Portions of pieces are juxtaposed for comparison or played simultaneously, tracing "the motifs of the Indian raga Darbar over Senegalese drumming recording in Paris and a background mosaic of frozen moments from steps in writing an argumentative essay marian catholic high school, an exotic Hollywood orchestration of the 1950's (a sonic texture like a "Mona Lisa" which in close-up, reveals itself to be made up of tiny reproductions of the Taj Mahal." 13. During World War II concurrent with Cage's re-establishing the percussive status of the piano, Trinidadians were discovering that discarded oil barrels could be cheap, available alternatives to their traditional percussion instruments which were, because of the socially invigorating potential, banned. The steel drum eventually became a national asset. Meanwhile, back in the States, for perhaps similar reasons, scratch and history a level coursework ashville college dub have, in the Eighties, percolated through the black American ghettos. Within an essay custom writing marianapolis preparatory school, environmentally imposed, limited repertoire of possessions a portable disco may have a folk music potential exceeding that of the guitar. Pawned and ripped-off electronics are usually not accompanied by user's guides with consumer warnings such as "this blaster is history a level coursework ashville college, a passive reproducer". Any performance potential found in an appliance is often exploited. A record can be played like an act writing essay Bournemouth University, electronic washboard. Radio and act writing essay Bournemouth University disco jockeys layer the sounds of several recordings simultaneously. Essay custom writing Marianapolis Preparatory School. 14 The sound of music conveyed with a new authority over the airwaves is dubbed, embellished and manipulated in kind. Piracy or plagiarism of a work occur, according to Milton, "if it is not bettered by the borrower". Starting a persuasive essay Auburn University. Stravinsky added the right of possession to Milton's distinction when he said,. "A good composer does not imitate; he steals." An example of this better borrowing is Jim Tenney's "Collage 1" (l961) in act writing essay Bournemouth University which Elvis Presley's hit record "Blue Suede Shoes" (itself borrowed from Carl Perkins) is transformed by means of multi-speed tape recorders and razorblade. In the same way that Pierre Schaeffer found musical potential in his object sonore, which could be, for instance, a footstep, heavy with associations, Tenney took an everyday music and allowed us to hear it differently. Starting a persuasive essay Auburn University. At the same time, all that was inherently Elvis radically influenced our perception of Jim's piece. Fair use and fair dealing are respectively the original article writing sandy spring friends school American and the Canadian terms for instances in act writing essay Bournemouth University which appropriation without permission might be considered legal. Quoting extracts of act writing essay Bournemouth University music for pedagogical, illustrative and critical purposes have been upheld as legal fair use. So has borrowing for the purpose of original article writing sandy spring friends school parody. Fair dealing assumes use which does not interfere with the economic viability of the initial work. In addition to economic rights, moral rights exist in copyright, and in Canada these are receiving a greater emphasis in the current recommendations for revision. An artist can claim certain moral rights to a work. Elvis' estate can claim the same rights, including the right to original article writing sandy spring friends school, privacy, and the right to protection of "the special significance of sounds peculiar to a particular artist, the uniqueness of which might be harmed by inferior unauthorized recordings which might tend to confuse the public about an artist's abilities. At present, in Canada, a work can serve as a matrix for independent derivations. Scholarship essay writing Stanstead College. Section 17(2)(b) of act writing essay Bournemouth University the Copyright Act of starting a persuasive essay auburn university Canada provides "that an artist who does not retain the copyright in a work may use certain materials used to produce that work to produce a subsequent work, without infringing copyright in the earlier work, if the act writing essay Bournemouth University subsequent work taken as a whole does not repeat the main design of the previous work." My observation is good articles to write about sidcot school, that Tenney's "Blue Suede" fulfills Milton's stipulation; is supported by Stravinsky's aphorism; and act writing essay Bournemouth University does not contravene Elvis' morality or Section 17(2)(b) of the Copyright Act. The reuse of existing recorded materials is steps in writing an argumentative essay marian catholic high school, not restricted to the street and the esoteric. The single guitar chord occuring infrequently on H. Hancock's hit arrangement "Rocket" was not struck by an in-studio union guitarist but was sampled directly from act writing essay Bournemouth University, an old Led Zepplin record. Similarly, Michael Jackson unwittingly turns up on Hancock's follow-up clone "Hard Rock". Now that keyboardists are getting instruments with the button for this appropriation built in, they're going to push it, easier than reconstructing the ideal sound from oscillation one. These players are used to act writing essay Bournemouth University, fingertip replication, as in the case of the organ that had the titles of the songs from which the timbres were derived printed on the stops. act writing essay Bournemouth University. 15. So the equipment is available, and everybody's doing it, blatantly or otherwise. act writing essay Bournemouth University. Melodic invention is nothing to lose sleep over steps in writing an argumentative essay marian catholic high school, (look what sleep did for Tartini). There's a certain amount of legal leeway for imitation. Now can we, like Charles Ives, borrow merrily and blatantly from all the music in the air? Ives composed in an era in act writing essay Bournemouth University which much of music existed in a public domain. Public domain is now legally defined, although it maintains a distance from the present which varies from act writing essay Bournemouth University, country to country. act writing essay Bournemouth University. In order to follow Ives' model we would be restricted to using the same oldies which in his time were current. Nonetheless, music in the public domain can become very popular, perhaps in part because the composer is steps in writing an argumentative essay marian catholic high school, no longer entitled to exclusivity, or royalty payments‹ a hit available for a song . Or as This Business of starting a persuasive essay auburn university Music puts it, "The public domain is like a vast national park without a guard to original article writing sandy spring friends school, stop wanton looting, without a guide for the lost traveller, and in fact, without clearly defined roads or even borders to stop the helpless visitor from being sued for trespass by private abutting owners." Professional developers of the musical landscape know and act writing essay Bournemouth University lobby for the loopholes in act writing essay Bournemouth University copyright. Starting a persuasive essay Auburn University. On the other hand, many artistic endeavours would benefit creatively from a state of act writing essay Bournemouth University music without fences, but where, as in scholarship, acknowledgement is insisted upon. The property metaphor used to original article writing sandy spring friends school, illustrate an artist's rights is difficult to act writing essay Bournemouth University, pursue through publication and mass dissemination. The hit parade promenades the aural floats of pop on public display, and as curious tourists should we not be able to take our own snapshots through the crowd ("tiny reproductions of the Taj Mahal") rather than be restricted to the official souvenir postcards and programmes? All popular music (and all folk music, by definition), essentially, if not legally, exists in a public domain. Listening to pop music isn't a matter of choice. Asked for or not, we're bombarded by it. In its most insidious state, filtered to an incessant bass-line, it seeps through apartment walls and out of the heads of walk people. Although people in general are making more noise than ever before, fewer people are making more of the total noise; specifically, in music, those with megawatt PA's, triple platinum sales, and heavy rotation. act writing essay Bournemouth University. Difficult to essay custom writing marianapolis preparatory school, ignore, pointlessly redundant to imitate, how does one not become a passive recipient? Proposing their game plan to apprehend the Titanic once it had been located at the bottom of the Atlantic, oceanographer Bob Ballard of the Deep Emergence Laboratory suggested "you pound the hell out of it with every imaging system you have." This paper was initially presented by act writing essay Bournemouth University Oswald at the Wired Society Electro-Acoustic Conference in Toronto in 1985. It was published in Musicworks #34, as a booklet by Recommended Quarterly and subsequently revised for the Whole Earth Review #57 as 'Bettered by scholarship essay writing stanstead college the borrower'.