The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
Imagine a kaleidoscope--you put your eye up to the eyepiece and lift it to the light; colorful pieces of the world scatter before you, until they finally stop in argumentative claims the university of nottingham,
an organized pattern--an imaginative parallel to language processing. Argumentative claims The University of Nottingham!
We see information through our kaleidoscope, our mind--we see a table, we see people sitting at the table. Somehow we have to descriptive writing essay Grier School
organize the information; we do this "by the linguistic systems in our minds.вЂќ We agree to arrange data in this way (Whorf, вЂњScience and Linguistics,вЂќ Technology Review).
In Daniel ChandlerвЂ™s review, вЂњThe Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis,вЂќ Chandler describes the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: thought is formed by the systems of language. Interactive essay writing Stevenson Academy!
This is a determinist view, in article review apa la trobe university (navitas),
which вЂњ thinking is descriptive writing essay Grier School
determined by language.вЂќ Sapir and Whorf believe that any change to the words (such as translating a poem from one language to another) could result in a change of meaning.
Although most linguists reject the descriptive writing essay Grier School
view of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, in its resolute and excessive form, there are many linguists who have adopted a middle-road view, which says thinking can be affected by language, but not necessarily. In fact, language and thought consist of critical thinking situations john f. kennedy international school
a process that goes both ways. descriptive writing essay Grier School!
Language used by certain groups in society affects thinking, for example, the particular usage of Ebonics. Also, thinking can be affected by the particular language usage created by descriptive writing essay Grier School
"social pressure," such as in the case of descriptive writing essay Grier School
speech used in articles for writing pomfret school,
an academic setting versus speech used with a child.
LAYNE JACOBS- Grow, Gerald. Serving the Strategic Reader: Cognitive Reading Theory and its Implications for the Teaching of Writing.
Serving the Strategic Reader.
"Reading is thinking stimulated by print." That quote from Joseph L. Vaughn is the point of Gerald GrowвЂ™s article вЂњServing the descriptive writing essay Grier School
Strategic Reader: Cognitive Reading Theory and its Implications for the Teaching of Writing.вЂќ People do not read passively, that is they do not just accept information as information alone. The old model of sender encodes and article review apa la trobe university (navitas)
transmits a message, and the reader decodes the message and descriptive writing essay Grier School
interprets is outdated. People are understood to be intrinsically active in their reading. They choose what to read, choose how to read, they skip and skim. But more importantly, their participation extends to interpretation People construct for themselves the world in which they live. Everyone has a model for their world, and when they read, they actively seek out information that will create, confirm, and modify the model they have established. The reader gives the interpretation, not the writer.
While it may see from this that readers draw any conclusion from descriptive writing essay Grier School
writing they want, the fact is that information can be organized to maximize consistent response. Here is where creativity and an understanding of cognitive processes becomes useful for writers and teachers. Grow gives three examples of methods that connect readers to a consistent response. Text patterns: prose occurs in recurring organizational patterns of text that may contain one major element plus supporting information, a description of a sequence, or a comparison of two or more elements. Our minds detect these patterns with вЂњsignal words,вЂќ such as вЂњin contrast, like, similar, resemble, share, have in common.вЂќ Another method: frames. A frame is вЂњa representation intended to descriptive writing essay Grier School
guide the how to write an art critique essay tilton school
process of thought, supporting, organizing, and catalyzing that process.вЂќ Textbooks use frames. When they introduce new information they often include a graphical box to orient readers. Another method: considerate text. Interactive essay writing Stevenson Academy!
Considerate text is well-written, well-organized, and essay writing assistance institut auf dem rosenberg
signals the organization of how to write an art critique essay tilton school
its thought to the descriptive writing essay Grier School
EMILY AKINS- Susanne K. Langer. Language and Thought.
Language and Thought.
In this essay, Langer addresses the issue of how language separates humans from the animal kingdom and also discusses the differences between signs and symbols. Humans and animals all use signs, but signs are different from symbols and our use of article review apa la trobe university (navitas)
symbols is descriptive writing essay Grier School
what sends us on argumentative claims the university of nottingham
a "tangent that takes us far away from the mere biological cycle that animal generations accomplish." "Animal speech" doesn't have structure; it's just a response. For example, apes may say "Nga" when they see their dinner, but never between meals. They cannot talk about their meals - if they could, then they would have ideas and discussions just like men.
The difference between signs and symbols: "a sign causes us to think or act in face of the thing signified, whereas a symbol causes us to think about the thing symbolized" (31). It is our use of symbols that differentiates us from the animals. The symbols in our lives ("words, pictures, and memory images") can all combine and their collaborative meaning creates a "kaleidoscope of interactive essay writing stevenson academy
ideas" that we call "stream of thought" (32). In fact symbols are so much a part of our lives, it is an "organic need."
Among the other phenomena that come from our "conception process" and that set us apart from and above the animal kingdom, is the phenomenon of language, found always and only in humans. Language is descriptive writing essay Grier School
the "most amazing achievement of critical thinking situations john f. kennedy international school
the symbolistic human mind. Langer boldly states that without language, thought is impossible - even that "the birth of language is the dawn of humanity." It is what most distinctively and descriptive writing essay Grier School
assuredly separates us from animals.
She disputes a psychologists' belief that language is simply an evolved, higher form of the grunts and expressions that animals use; their signs. But, the fact that language is based on symbols and not signs refutes this belief in the origin of language. We use it to form and keep ideas in our mind. How to write an art critique essay Tilton School!
Names are essential to language for that is how the object is abstracted from article review apa la trobe university (navitas)
its true being to a mere idea that recurs when the name is spoken. Argumentative claims The University of Nottingham!
Because signs don't refer to ideas but to actual situations, then the signs that animals use to communicate do not constitute a language. Their signs don't have a pattern or meaningful syntax like language does.
To further illustrate the difference between animals and humans, between symbols and signs:
RYAN LINE- McLaughlin, Tim. descriptive writing essay Grier School!
Artificial Memory: Mnemonic Writing in the New Media.
In our "normal" way of reading and recall, we rely on books and critical thinking situations john f. kennedy international school
printed materials to jog our memories and spark some sense of remembrance of a particular subject. We look at pictures, read graphs and charts to better understand the ideas and interactive essay writing stevenson academy
concepts trying to be conveyed. "Why introduce a new way of reading a book, instead of the one that moves, like life, from beginning to end, from birth to death? The answer is descriptive writing essay Grier School
simple: because any new way of reading that goes against the matrix of time, which pulls us toward death, is descriptive writing essay Grier School
a futile but honest effort to resist this inexorability of oneвЂ™s fate, in literature at least, if not in reality"- a quote by Milorad Pavic, used by the author of this article, that emphasizes the articles for writing pomfret school
thrust of this particular writing. McLaughlin is introducing thoughts on why the hypertext alternative. Two major tools that he suggests as effective methods in constructing a hypertext are cartography and photography. Cartography is the map or layout of the text. Articles for writing Pomfret School!
This sets a standard for the particular text that allows a reader to dive into the subject without ending up lost in cyberspace. descriptive writing essay Grier School!
While hypertext travels against the grain of "normal" reading, as illustrated in the opening quote as a systematic journey from "birth to death", it is important to provide some structure or architecture to the story. Photographs are an extremely productive tool in the gathering of knowledge. Through the descriptive writing essay Grier School
use of pictures, one can identify with the concepts of the subject at hand. As most Internet browsers are aware, you can click on a picture and instantly enlarge the image. The use of descriptive writing essay Grier School
pictures is highly recommended by McLaughlin.