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On The Roof of A Tenement House. General View of Roofs. Improvised Beds on the Roof. Looking Down on a Roof. This image illustrates not only the concept of sleeping on the essay writing support acs cobham international school roof but that of sharing a bed. Family beds were a very common practice throughout the world and practiced by all social levels until relatively recently. Many tenement buildings were dark and airless. The following map and image show just how closely the buildings were packed together. The lots were 100 feet deep by 25 feet wide. This image shows pre 1879 buildings (with no air shafts) and post 1879 buildings (with air shafts). Notice that #s 20, 22, 24 and 26 Delancy Street are solid blocks of buildings while the air shafts (the white shapes) can be seen at # 141, 143 and 145 Forsyth St. Notice how small most of the "yards" are. Surrounded by essay writing support acs cobham international school, so many tall buildings they were general dark. 168 and 170 Chrystie and 149 and premed requirement NEOMA Business School 151 Forsyth have rear tenements. That is, a front building and a back building with a yard in between. Rear tenements had the worst reputations. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 indicate the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok number of stories to a given building. One foot wide by six feet long, the sole source of light and air for sixteen rooms where thirty or forty people sleep." Between 1879 and buy coursework caterham school 1901 the dumbbell tenement was the most common type of construction: For twenty years the essay writing support acs cobham international school "dumb-bell" was practically the only type of tenement building constructed on Manhattan Island. Written argumentative essays Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? There are in existence to-day more than ten thousand of these homes. They are ordinarily five, six, or seven stories high. On the entrance-floor are frequently two shops with three room apartments in the back. In the centre is a long, dark, very narrow entrance-hall. On the upper stories are four families to a floor. Here on each side of every hall are seven rooms, extending back from the street to the yard. The families in the premed requirement NEOMA Business School front usually have four rooms each; families in the rear have three. A front apartment has one room opening on the street; back of this are three rooms with windows on an air-shaft twenty-eight inches wide. The rear apartments have one room opening on a yard ten feet deep, and two rooms on the twenty-eight-inch -wide air shaft. Needless to say, the premed requirement NEOMA Business School air shaft rooms, front and back are dark except on the top floor. The shafts are "stagnant wells of foul air", "conveyers of noise, oder, and disease, and when fire breaks out serve as inflammable flues." Good Tenements For A Million People, the Story Of New York's Successful Fight For Better Housing by Emily Wayland Dinwiddie circa 1909 publication unknown, collection of Maggie Land Blanck. In 1901 the "New Law" was passed that required more air and light in newly constructed buildings. In 1909 the New York City Tenement Hose Department reported 96,000 windowless rooms in New York City. However, due to new housing laws, one forth of the i need help writing an essay the storm king school city population lived in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, tenements with light and air. By 1909 the city was rid of the worst of the slums. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? Advances in housing and sanitation reduced and written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas in some cases completely eliminated diseases like infant mortality, cholera, small pox, and typhus. 3. 3 "Good Tenements For A Million People , the Story Of New York's Successful Fight For Better Housing" by Emily Wayland Dinwiddie circa 1909 publication unknown. "Tenement Life in New York - Rag-pickers Court, Mulberry Street" 1879. Clothes in tatters, laundry in shreds, men idling about, children running wild, mothers beating their children, a obvious drunk - and yet - a man helping the drunk, two little children dancing merrily, a woman with a broom who appears to be cleaning up, and the industrious rag pickers carrying there wares. Gotham Court was built in buy coursework caterham school, 1850 to rescue the poor and premed requirement NEOMA Business School unfortunate from the evils of the older tenements. Written argumentative essays Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? However, only premed requirement NEOMA Business School, 10 years after it was completed Jacob Riis reported that 61 of 138 children born there in a three year period had died before the age of one. The building was torn down in 1895. The Harper's article says there was a frontage of 30 feet on the premed requirement NEOMA Business School street. The building was 300 feet deep and premed requirement NEOMA Business School "is divided practically into two buildings by premed requirement NEOMA Business School, a partition wall extending all the way from front to rear". One division had a court on the west side and the other had a court on the east side. These "courts were", in fact, alleys. The ground floor apartments visited by the reporter were "small, dark and dirty" "at noon on a cloudy day" were "as dark as early evening elsewhere". The upper floors were brighter but just as small and writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok dirty. Seventy out of every 100 deaths in the city occurred in tenements. Childhood illness and death were rampant. Dr. STEPEHN SMITH, an authority on this question, says: "One-half the deaths of the city are of children under the age of buy coursework caterham school five years of age. Since 1872 the deaths in New York have been 32,647 of whom 16,188 were under the age of five years. The mortality is not the sum total of the damage. Where there is one death here are seventy-five cases of sickness" The worst months were July and August with over half the number dying during those months. Half of the died form "foul air diseases". Notice the bird house and the cat. "Here Uncle Tom's Cabin was first presented in New York, and many a favorite actor played his part. The sky-light still remains, and essay writing sites city, university of london some of the machinery, but there is little else to remind one of the old play-house." 42 Cherry Street is between Catherine and Market Streets between the Brooklyn Bridge and Manhattan Bridge. "This is one of the oldest houses in New York, having been built by premed requirement NEOMA Business School, a Dutch family nearly two hundred years ago. It was made from Holland brick, so well cemented together that a year ago, when the front was being strengthened, the workmen had the essay writing support acs cobham international school greatest difficulty in tearing down a portion of the front of it so it could be removed." Gotham Court on Cherry Street had been a model tenement built in. Not all the blame for the decrepit living conditions of the tenements should fall on the inhabitants themselves, the landlords held some responsibility - or lack thereof. Essay writing sites City, University of London? Two tenements on premed requirement NEOMA Business School Grand and lower Fifth Avenue collapsed despite tenant complains: " Two months ago the occupants of the house remarked that something was wrong. When trains passed on the elevated railroad, or heavy wagons went along Grand Street of South Fifth Avenue, it vibrated to i need help writing an essay the storm king school, an extraordinary degree. Furniture got out writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok of place, articles left on tables fell from them, window casings bulged, and doors could not be closed or opened. Six weeks ago, at night, several persons in the house were startled by a crack and a jar, and discovered a yawning rent in the party wall. One of the tenants spoke to the landlord and insisted that a complaint be made to the proper authorities, and that the building should be repaired." No repairs were made and the essay writing sites city, university of london tenants were not ordered out. The article does not mention loss of live and property. The image does show several men carrying a stretcher with what appears to be a body covered with a sheet. Social reformers did put pressure on the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok city and city housing laws were passed that greatly improved the lot of the tenement dweller. "Pig alley" from " Life in New York Tenement-Houses" as seen by a city missionary, 1892. This tenement apartment at 340, 342 and 344 Cherry Street was erected by the Tenement-house Building Company a group of "public spirited and philanthropic" citizens to try and address some of the worst issues of tenement housing. It opened in 1888 and boasted a laundry room and bath rooms (rooms with bath tubs) on the lower level as well as a kindergarden on the first floor. Each floor contained a WC (water closet) that was shared by two or more families. All rooms had windows, none were smaller than 10 feet by 8 feet and each apartment contained at premed requirement NEOMA Business School, least one room that was at essay writing sites city, university of london, least 12 feet by 12 feet. There was no dark narrow hallway, all having widows and gas light at night. Some apartments had running water. Crical Marian Catholic High School? Rents were from $6 to $15 per premed requirement NEOMA Business School month. This area of Cherry Street no longer exists. It became the buy coursework caterham school site of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School first New York City superproject, the Vladeck Houses - 24 six-story buildings which were started in 1930 and completed in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, 1941. Another example of well designed tenement housing. This building still stands. Housing laws did improve the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok lives of tenement dwellers and some wealthy real estate investors put their money in tenement housing. By 1890 new tenement buildings were being constructed to address some of the worst issues of tenement life. Between 71 and 72 on premed requirement NEOMA Business School First Avenue a six story building was erected around a courtyard so that every room had a window. The apartments themselves had running water and contained three to four "good sized" rooms with closets. The building contained elevators for coal and garbage and an ash chute. The halls were warmed in winter and lit all year. Each tenant had a space in the premed requirement NEOMA Business School cellar to store his coal. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? In addition there was a bath room on the ground floor of each section that contained bath tubs with hot and cold running water. The rent was from $6 to $13 per month. 1. 1 Cosmo 1890 Co-operative Housekeeping in Tenements. Where the poor save a large percent of their fuel bill by purchasing their coal by the ton collectively instead of individually by the basket. It is on East Thirty-first Street, New York. This building had a "Sun Parlor" on the roof. The Tenement House Law of 1901 could not necessitate that all 80,000 old tenement buildings be torn down but did require improvements - halls be lighted and ventilated, every family had to have a fire escape and "decent sanitation facilities". 2. 2 Good Tenements For A Million People, the Story Of New York's Successful Fight For Better Housing by written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas, Emily Wayland Dinwiddie circa 1909 publication unknown. The Tenement Problem 1901 Google Book. The Tenement Problem 1901 Google Book. The Tenement Problem 1901 Google Book. The Tenement Problem 1901 Google Book. Frank Leslie's illustrated newspaper, Aug. 12, 1882, p. 393. There are a lot of reports in books and the popular press about the extremely crowded conditions in the tenements. "Those who live in the country, where there is abundant room for all, can scarcely conceive of 500 people living in one house. Essay writing support ACS Cobham International School? And yet more than that number of residents were counted some time ago in a house two doors from premed requirement NEOMA Business School Camp Memorial Church." Home missionary, Volumes 74-75 By Congregational Home Missionary Society There is no question that many immigrant families were large and tenement conditions were crowded. However, there also may have been some overstating by reform minded individuals. There were reportedly hundreds of rag pickers living at 88 - 90 Sheriff Street. Yet when I investigated that address I found only a few families. See 88-90 Sheriff Street. "The Census - An Enumerator collecting statistics in the premed requirement NEOMA Business School German District on the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok East Side, New York City" THE NEW YORK WORKING GIRL. "The Enemies of the Working Girl" The title of the image makes reference to the numbers of families who did piece work at night and/or or using underage children as laborers. "Working girls" of the time were trying to get improved working conditions and wages through unions and strikes. ONE MORE MOUTH TO FEED. Based on the premed requirement NEOMA Business School tools lying on the floor this new father was a carpenter. The old woman holding the baby is a possible reference to multi-generations living together as was the case of the Goehle family when they were on Sheriff Street in 1890. There was and economic panic in 1873 which resulted in a four year depression. The economy began to improve in 1878. Eviction was a common fact of a lifestyle that was often hand to mouth. An illness or death in the family could result in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, a significant reduction in income and an inability to pay the rent. Widows with small children were particularly susceptible to eviction. Assistance often came in the form of family friends and neighbors taking up a collection to i need help writing an essay the storm king school, tide the family over. HARD TIMES - RENT DAY " Our illustration on page 1140 presents one of the many sorrowful incidents of the life of the poor during hard times like the i need help writing an essay the storm king school present, when work is premed requirement NEOMA Business School scarce, and every penny that can be earned is required to essay writing sites city, university of london, buy the fuel and food necessary to keep cold and hunger from the door. Essay writing support ACS Cobham International School? Hundreds and premed requirement NEOMA Business School thousands in great cities like New York, unable to find steady employment, are at the present time suffering for want of common necessaries of life. The coal, the premed requirement NEOMA Business School food, the clothing, without which they would perish, consume their chance and scanty earnings, and the essay writing support acs cobham international school dreaded rent-day to often finds them without the means to prevent their being turned out into the streets, or forced to take refuge in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, some wretched tenement garrett or cellar, wholly unfit for human beings to life in. Fortunate are the poor who have compassionate landlords willing to wait for their rent until better times come round again. The tools on the floor indicated that this father was a carpenter. There was a financial "panic" in the fall of 1873. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? The Stock Market closed for buy coursework caterham school, ten days starting on September 20. It took years for the economy to recover. Construction slowed, wages were cut and real estate values fell. This image seem to portray a multi-generational family. There was no workman's compensation. If the breadwinner was hurt, he (or she) would be out of work. The landlady has "turned out" this father, mother and their five children and all their possessions. AN EVICTION IN THE TENEMENT DISTRICT OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. "Evicted - on the Sidewalk" from Life in New York Tenement-Houses" as seen by a city missionary, 1892. This poor lady, her baby and two small children are out on the streets with their meager possessions. Bathing, even among the upper classes, was not popular before the late 1800s. As health authorities began to become aware of the need for essay writing sites city, university of london, public hygiene, bathing was encouraged for all classes and in 1895 state legislature mandated the availability of public baths in cities of 50,000 or more. A majority of tenements in the buy coursework caterham school 1890s did not have indoor plumbing. Those apartments with running water had only cold. In some tenements the only water came from a faucet in an unlit hall way and some tenements had only one facet per crical marian catholic high school building, supplying up to fifty tenants. Bathroom, when available, where most likely no more than one per i need help writing an essay the storm king school floor and shared by several tenants. The common bath frequently did not include a tub or shower. In 1905, there were areas in New York where 36 baths were shared by at least 2,500 families and in some blocks there are as many as 800 families and no bath at all. Tenement bathing usually took place in the kitchen in a dish pan, the sink, or a portable tub. To make bathing available to the tenement dwellers the city build public baths. The first public bath in Manhattan was opened on premed requirement NEOMA Business School 326 Rivington Street in 1902 and in five months accommodated 224,876 bathers, about buy coursework caterham school, three times as many men as women. In 1905 there were 7 public baths in the Manhattan, five were under municipal management and were absolutely free, the other two charged a minimum fee for soap and a towel. There were four more baths under construction and one in the planning stage. In addition there were floating baths along the written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas river. These were as much swimming pools as places to wash, thus combining recreation and premed requirement NEOMA Business School public hygiene. The floating baths were a kind of wooden wharf enclosing a swimming pool that allowed the river water to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, flow through. In 1902 the floating baths were used by 5 or 6 million in the premed requirement NEOMA Business School summer season. Some young men braved the i need help writing an essay the storm king school dangers of the rivers by jumping off the premed requirement NEOMA Business School docks to take a summer swim. The baths were open from mid June to mid October. THE WOMEN'S DAY AT THE FREE BATH-HOUSES- WAITING FOR ADMITTANCE. Harper's weekly August 3, 1872. Ladies Day at the city Baths. Mens Day at the city Baths. Mens Day at premed requirement NEOMA Business School, the city Baths. While the article includes this photo, very little was said about the premed requirement NEOMA Business School use of i need help writing an essay the storm king school showers in public schools. The children do appear to be standing in front of a swimming pool. Waiting room in the Public Baths 1899-1900. The baths cost 5 cents, including soap and a towel. This bath had 17 shower heads for men, 6 shower heads for women, 3 tubs for "old women" and children. In July 1900 17,803 people made use of the facilities. (The tenement house problem: including the report of the New York . Volume 2 By New York (State). Tenement House Commission) While not "officially" a bath, boys had the advantage of cooling off (and maybe getting a little clean) by jumping off any pier, into any river or fountain. With all the crical marian catholic high school talk about how dirty the tenement district was it is premed requirement NEOMA Business School very impressive how many images of the tenements show laundry on the line - outside if the weather permitted inside if it was inclement. Tenement Life in New York - Mayor Grace's Tour of Inspection 1881. Yard of a Tenement, New York copyright 1900, posted 1906. The New York Tenement-House Commission by Jacob A. Riis. "Air-Shaft in an East-side Tenement. (Closed at premed requirement NEOMA Business School, both ends. Bedooms pich dark; sixty windows open on this air shaft.)" "The Water Supply for Three Ludlow Street Tenement Houses 1890" While there is a lot of discussion in the literature of the period about washing of written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas persons, washing of clothes, water in court yards and water in apartments, there is almost no mention of toilets (or lack thereof). Other than the occasionally mention of a chamber pot almost nothing is said. While this image is entitled "the water supply" the toilets in the background may not have been supplied with water. In other words, they may have been old-fashioned pit outhouses (AKA privies). Interestingly a lot of archaeological work has been done on the premed requirement NEOMA Business School lives of tenement dwellers in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, New York as a result of i need help writing an essay the storm king school excavating these old privies because people threw or dropped a variety of items in the privy. One of the most notorious tenement areas in New York was the infamous "Five Points", site of the buy coursework caterham school "Gangs of New York". A lot of information about the lives of the people who live in Five Points has been obtained from the excavations of the privies in the area. My son, Damian Blanck, worked for premed requirement NEOMA Business School, several years on the Five Point project and helped build the web site which can be seen at premed requirement NEOMA Business School, The Five Points Site. Unfortunately, the majority of the 850,000 artifacts found at Five Points were housed in the basement of Six World Trade Center which was destroyed on 9/11/01 when the facade of Tower One fell on essay writing support acs cobham international school it. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? Only 18 articles from the buy coursework caterham school collection survived because they were on loan at the time. So the only remnants are the images on the web site and in some publications. Other outhouses, called school sinks, were rows of cubicles over a concrete vault which was connected to a common waste system. The system was periodically sluiced with water which flushed the wasted into a public sewer line. In 1901 the law in New York required 1 indoor toilet for every two apartments. Outhouse and laundry NY tenement back yard 1904. Outhouse and laundry NY tenement back yard 1905. Outhouse and laundry NY tenement back yard 1902. Outhouse and crical marian catholic high school laundry NY tenement back yard 1905. There is premed requirement NEOMA Business School a women in the essay writing support acs cobham international school background on her knees scrubbing a rug and there are white lace curtains hanging on the line. Most tenement dwellings did not have refrigeration until the 1930s. In the summer time it was necessary to shop frequently since the food would not keep. Information on premed requirement NEOMA Business School Refrigeration in the Tenements by Herb I. Deutsch. "There was no refrigeration so food shopping was usually done daily basis and butchers tried not keep meat more than a day. Crical Marian Catholic High School? In most cases, smaller animals were kept alive until bought, then dispatched and dressed to essay writing sites city, university of london, be cooked that day. These included freshwater fish, fowl and rabbits. Fresh food preservation was based on ice which was harvested from the Hudson river and lakes upstate in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, January and February and premed requirement NEOMA Business School stored in ice warehouses for sale throughout the year. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? In New York City it was stored on barges. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? Of course if it was a mild winter there was no ice. Writing a persuasive paper The Regentís International School, Bangkok? Many tenements had iceboxes in which a chunk of ice was put in the top of an writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok insulated box with a door in the front. Writing a persuasive paper The Regentís International School, Bangkok? The iceman would have been a common sight for Esther and Ignatz who carried chunks of ice up and buy coursework caterham school down the stairs to customers in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, later years. By 1900 mechanical ice plants were the norm and by the 1920's electric refrigerators were introduced. Essay writing support ACS Cobham International School? [1] "The icebox was invented in 1840 . . . . Shortly thereafter, NYC saw the establishment of premed requirement NEOMA Business School regular delivery routes for natural ice." [2] . It cost between $.10 and $.25 for a block of ice to be delivered and which might last several days in an premed requirement NEOMA Business School ice chest. That cost could rapidly consume a large part of the budget on buy coursework caterham school a regular basis when you consider wages being paid in the premed requirement NEOMA Business School late 19th century. I need help writing an essay The Storm King School? Probably the only people who could afford large quantities of ice on the Lower East Side in the 1890s were those doing well and butchers and fish mongers who could spread the cost among the crical marian catholic high school clientele. Whether most people or any of the Berger children had an iced box is premed requirement NEOMA Business School questionable, putting to one side the issue of written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas space. According to the Sears & Roebuck Catalogue from buy coursework caterham school 1897, iceboxes or ice chests ranged in price from approximately $3.00 to $20.00. On average, such a purchase would have represented a month's rent for premed requirement NEOMA Business School, immigrant families. The cheapest ice chest advertised by Sears & Roebuck in 1897 was made of hardwood, lined with heavy metal throughout, and included a wooden slat rack on the bottom for ice and heavy metal shelves. [3] . However a number did have a small insulated chest or box which as kept on the fire escape. [4] . My impression is that food was bought in the quantities needed and prepared and consumed on a daily basis. To the extent there were cooked left overs they were consumed the next day. In tenements, meal preparation was a challenge [if the family was poor] that required effort from every member of the family. Children scavenged wood for the stove, and mothers stretched every penny, shopping at pushcarts where vendors were willing to sell just half a parsnip for that day's soup or stew. [5] . [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_trade#Storage; http://www.ultimatehistoryproject.com/ice-house.html http://www.vintageliterature.ca/pd-history-of-ice-boxes-refrigerators-catalogs-on-dvd.cfm. Herbert I. Deutsch, December 2013. The following images are also found in other sections of this page and other related pages. I gathered them together to illustrated the fact that people obviously kept pets including cats, dogs, and even apparently a pigeon. Harper's Weekly undated. Harper's Weekly undated. Harper's Weekly December 20, 1873, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, Lest we think that only the premed requirement NEOMA Business School working poor lived in multi storied multi family dwellings - such buildings were also the home of the wealthy. However, there were some major differences. Everett N Blanke in the "Cliff Dwellers of New York" published in Cosmo in 1893 says the distinction between an buy coursework caterham school apartment house and premed requirement NEOMA Business School a tenement is "somewhat hazy" until one considers the etymology of the two words. "Tenement" is derived from the Latin verb "ternere" (to hold) and is the name properly given to a building that is designed to hold or to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, give shelter to the largest possible number of persons, at least possible cast to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, each individual tenant. "Apartment" however, is an anglicized derivation of another Latin verb, "partare" (to divide), and with equal propriety is applied to a dwelling house, of which the structural and written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas social intent is to separate family from family and to gratify the essay writing sites city, university of london desire for privacy that every household naturally feels, at the same time reducing the expense of that gratification to a low estimate. Economy, there fore, is the purpose of the tenement - comfort that of the apartment." The big difference is clearly in the premed requirement NEOMA Business School comforts provided by the "apartment" buildings. The first "apartment" house, called Stuyvesant, was build in 1870. By 1893 New York contained 700 "apartment" houses. Nearly all of them were equipped with "electrical and steam appliances". This included the passenger elevator which made the upper stories of these building more - instead of less desirable - as the top floors of walk up tenements were. The easily accessible top floor was far away from the dust and noise of the essay writing sites city, university of london street and premed requirement NEOMA Business School nearer a cooling summer breeze. Essay writing sites City, University of London? However, most of New York's wealthy left the city to spent the summer at their county or beach houses. Eclectic lighting was clean, odorless and constant. Steam heat was controlled by a thermostat enabling a constant temperature. The ordinary apartment consisted of seven to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, ten spacious rooms generally all on one level. Moreover, the wealthy had servants - maids, butlers, cooks and nursemaids - to take care of premed requirement NEOMA Business School those nasty chores for them. Information from"The Cliff-Dwellers of New York" by Everett N Blanke, Cosmo 1893. Several images and premed requirement NEOMA Business School some information came from an article entitled "Life in New York Tenement-Houses as seen by a city missionary" by premed requirement NEOMA Business School, William T Elsing. There are numerous venders of premed requirement NEOMA Business School historical images and articles who cut up old publication and sell them as individual items. Unfortunately, when I bought this article the name and date of the periodical were missing. I had tentatively dated the article to 1903 because Elsing makes reference to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, "The first bath was opened last August". Other sources refer to the first public bath opening in New York City on Rivington Street in 1902. Trying to give an exact date to Elsing's article, I looked on line. I can find several references to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, an article of exactly the premed requirement NEOMA Business School same title attributed to Scribners June 1892. Unfortunately, I was not able to access the actual article. The reference to the baths opening a year before is confusing but I believe that the article I have is that from Scribners June 1892. William T. Elsing was a minister and social reformer whos name is written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas connected in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, several publications with the well known social reformer, Jacob Riis. William T Elsing was born in 1852 in Holland. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? He was listed in the 1900 Census in Queens as a preacher with his wife Mary and two sons, Morris, age 17, and Warren, age 14 and a servant. In 1910 he was listed in writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok, Ward 19 Brooklyn, as a boarder, married, clergyman city mission, his wife was not listed. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? In 1920 he was in Manhattan, pastor church, age 69 widowed. Several images and some information came from buy coursework caterham school an article entitled "Good Tenements For A Million People, the Story Of New York's Successful Fight For Better Housing" by Emily Wayland Dinwiddie. As with the premed requirement NEOMA Business School William Elsing article this one came undated and the publisher unknown. It does refer to the New York City Tenement House Department report of 1909. Emily Wayland Dinwiddie born 1849 died 1947 was a social worker. Talking of Wards 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 11, 13, 14, 15 and 17 in the 1870 census James Dabney McCabe Jr. says: The section of the essay writing sites city, university of london city embraced in the wards we have named is filled with a class of buildings called tenement houses. The law classes all dwellings containing three or more families as tenement houses, but the true tenement house is an institution peculiar to New York. There are about 70,000 buildings in the city used for purposes of business and as dwellings, and of these, 20,000 are tenement houses, containing about premed requirement NEOMA Business School, 160,000 families, or about 500,000 people. This would give an average population of eight families or twenty persons to each tenement house in the city. Essay writing sites City, University of London? In 1867 the number of crical marian catholic high school tenement houses was 18,582. The reader will no doubt suppose that the premed requirement NEOMA Business School inmates of these houses are compelled to remain in them because of extreme poverty. This is premed requirement NEOMA Business School not the case. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? The tenement houses are occupied mainly by the honest laboring population of New York, who receive fair wages for essay writing sites city, university of london, their work. They herd here because the rents of single houses are either out crical marian catholic high school of proportion to, or beyond their means, and premed requirement NEOMA Business School because they are convenient to their work. They are not paupers, but they cannot afford the fearful cost of a separate home, and they are forced to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, resort to this mode of life in order to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, live with any degree of comfort. Many of the most skilled mechanics, many of the best paid operatives of both sexes, who are earning comfortable wages, are forced to live in these vast barracks, simply because the bare rent of an empty house in a moderately decent neighborhood, is from $1000 upward. Did the city possess some means of rapid transit between its upper and lower extremities, which would prevent the premed requirement NEOMA Business School loss of the time now wasted in traversing the length of the island, there can be no doubt that the tenement sections would soon be thinned out. There are two classes of tenement houses in the city. Those occupied by the well-to-do working people, and those which are simply the homes of the poor. The first are immense, but spruce looking structures, and are kept cleaner than the latter, but all suffer from the evils incident to and essay writing support acs cobham international school inseparable from such close packing. Those of the second class are simply dens of vice and misery. In the older quarters of the city, many of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School old time residences are now occupied as tenement houses. The old Walton mansion in Pearl street, opposite the essay writing sites city, university of london vast establishment of Harper & Brothers, was once the most elegant and hospitable mansion in New York. It is writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok now one of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School most wretched tenement houses in the buy coursework caterham school city. The tenement houses of the upper wards, however, were constructed for the premed requirement NEOMA Business School uses to which they are put. As pecuniary investments they pay well, the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok rents sometimes yielding as much as thirty per cent. on the premed requirement NEOMA Business School investment. One of premed requirement NEOMA Business School them shall serve as a description of the average tenement house. The building stands on essay writing sites city, university of london a lot with a front of premed requirement NEOMA Business School 50 feet, and a depth of 250 feet. It has an alley running the whole depth on each side of it. These alley-ways are excavated to the depth of the cellars, arched over, and essay writing support acs cobham international school covered with flag stones, in which, at intervals, are open gratings to give light below; the whole length of which space is occupied by water closets, without doors, and under which are open drains communicating with the street sewers. The building is five stories high, and has a flat roof. The only ventilation is premed requirement NEOMA Business School by a window, which opens against writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok, a dead wall eight feet distant, and to which rises the i need help writing an essay the storm king school vapor from the premed requirement NEOMA Business School vault below. There is water on each floor, and premed requirement NEOMA Business School gas pipes are laid through the written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas building, so that those who desire it can use gas. The building contains 126 families, or about writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok, 700 inhabitants. Each family has a narrow sitting-room, which is used also for premed requirement NEOMA Business School, working and eating, and a closet called a bed room. Essay writing support ACS Cobham International School? But few of the rooms are properly ventilated. The sun never shines in at the windows, and if the sky is overcast the rooms are so dark as to need artificial light. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? The whole house is dirty, and is filled with the written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas mingled odors from the cooking-stoves and the written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas sinks. In the winter the rooms are kept too close by the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok stoves, and in the summer the natural heat is made tenfold greater by the fires for cooking and washing. Pass these houses on a hot night, and written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas you will see the premed requirement NEOMA Business School streets in front of them filled with the occupants, and every window choked up with human heads, all panting and praying for relief and fresh air. Sometimes the families living in the close rooms we have described, take "boarders," who pay a part of the expenses of the "establishment." Formerly the occupants of these buildings emptied their filth and essay writing sites city, university of london refuse matter into the public streets, which in written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas, these quarters were simply horrible to behold; but of late years, the police, by compelling a rigid observance of the sanitary laws, have greatly improved the condition of the houses and streets, and premed requirement NEOMA Business School consequently the health of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School people. Crical Marian Catholic High School? During the past winter, however, many of the East side streets have become horribly filthy. The reader must not suppose that the house just described is an exceptional establishment. In the Eleventh and Seventeenth wards whole streets, for many blocks, are lined with similar houses. There are many single blocks of dwellings containing twice the number of families residing on Fifth avenue, on both sides of that street, from i need help writing an essay the storm king school Washington Square to the Park, or than a continuous row of dwellings similar to those on Fifth avenue, three or four miles in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, length. The Fourth ward, covering an area of 83 acres, contains 23,748 inhabitants. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? The city of Springfield (Massachusetts), contains 26,703 inhabitants. The Eleventh ward, comprising 196 acres, contains more people than the cities of Mobile (Alabama), and Salem (Massachusetts), combined. The Seventh ward, covering 110 acres, contains more inhabitants than the city of Syracuse (New York). The Seventeenth ward, covering 331 acres, contains more inhabitants than the city of Cleveland (Ohio), which is the fifteenth city in the Union in respect of population. The best of the tenement houses are uncomfortable. Written argumentative essays Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? Where so large a number of people are gathered under the same roof to live as they please, it is impossible to keep the premises clean. A very large portion of them are in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, bad repair and in equally bad sanitary condition. In 1867 these houses made up fifty-two per cent. of the buy coursework caterham school whole number, and premed requirement NEOMA Business School there is no reason to believe that there has been any improvement since then. Many of them are simply appalling. They become more wretched and squalid as the East River and Five Points sections are reached. Cherry, Water, and the premed requirement NEOMA Business School neighboring streets, are little better than charnel houses. About three months ago one of the most wretched rookeries in the city was cleared out and cleansed by order of the Board of Health. This was known as "Sweeney's," and stood in Gotham Court. The immediate cause of its overhauling was the discovery of i need help writing an essay the storm king school its actual condition made by Detective Finn and Mr. Edward Crapsey of the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok New York _Times_, during a visit to it. Mr. Crapsey gives the following interesting account of his visit: "As we stopped in Cherry street at premed requirement NEOMA Business School, the entrance to Gotham Court, and Detective Finn dug a tunnel of essay writing support acs cobham international school light with his bullseye lantern into the premed requirement NEOMA Business School foulness and blackness of that smirch on civilization, a score or more of premed requirement NEOMA Business School boys who had been congregated at the edge of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School court suddenly plunged back into the obscurity, and we heard the essay writing support acs cobham international school splash of premed requirement NEOMA Business School their feet in the foul collections of the pavements. "'This bullseye is an old acquaintance here,' said the detective, 'and as its coming most always means "somebody wanted," you see how they hide. Though why they should object to go to jail is more than I know; I'd rather stay in the worst dungeon in town than here. Come this way and I'll show you why.' "Carefully keeping in the little track of light cut into the darkness by the lantern, I followed the speaker, who turned into the first door on the right, and I found myself in an essay writing sites city, university of london entry about premed requirement NEOMA Business School, four feet by six, with steep, rough, rickety stairs leading upward in the foreground, and their counterparts at the rear giving access to as successful a manufactory of premed requirement NEOMA Business School disease and crical marian catholic high school death as any city on earth can show. Coming to the first of these stairs, I was peremptorily halted by the foul stenches rising from below; but Finn, who had reached the premed requirement NEOMA Business School bottom, threw back the relentless light upon the premed requirement NEOMA Business School descending way and urged me on. Every step oozed with moisture and buy coursework caterham school was covered sole deep with unmentionable filth; but I ventured on, and reaching my conductor, stood in a vault some twelve feet wide and two hundred long, which extended under the i need help writing an essay the storm king school whole of West Gotham Court. The walls of premed requirement NEOMA Business School rough stone dripped with slimy exudations, while the pavements yielded to the slightest pressure of the feet a suffocating odor compounded of bilge-water and sulphuretted hydrogen. Upon one side of this elongated cave of horrors were ranged a hundred closets, every one of which reeked with this filth, mixed with that slimy moisture which was everywhere as a proof that the waters of the neighboring East River penetrated, and lingered here to foul instead of purify. "'What do you think of this?' said Finn, throwing the light of written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas his lantern hither and thither so that every horror might be dragged from the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok darkness that all seemed to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, covet. 'All the thousands living in the barracks must come here, and premed requirement NEOMA Business School just think of all the young ones above that never did any harm having to written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas, take in this stuff;' and the detective struck out spitefully at the noxious air. As he did so, the gurgling of water at the Cherry street end of the vault caught his ear, and penetrating thither, he peered curiously about. "'I say, Tom,' he called back to his companion, who had remained with me in the essay writing sites city, university of london darkness, 'here's a big break in the Croton main.' But a moment later, in an affrighted voice: 'No, it ain't. Its the sewer! I never knew of this opening into it before. Paugh! how it smells. That's nothing up where you are. I'll bet on the undertaker having more jobs in the house than ever.' "By this time I began to feel sick and faint in that tainted air, and would have rushed up the stairs if I could have seen them. But Finn was exploring that sewer horror with his lantern. As I came down I had seen a pool of stagnant, green-coated water somewhere near the foot of the stairs, and, being afraid to stir in the thick darkness, was forced to call my guide, and, frankly state the urgent necessity for an immediate return above. The matter-of-fact policeman came up, and cast the liberating light upon the stairs, but rebuked me as I eagerly took in the comparatively purer atmosphere from above. 'You can't stand it five minutes; how do you suppose they do, year in and year out?' 'Even they don't stand it many years, I should think,' was my involuntary reply. "As we stepped out into the court again, the premed requirement NEOMA Business School glare of the bullseye dragged a strange face out of the darkness. It was that of a youth of eighteen or twenty years, ruddy, puffed, with the corners of the mouth grotesquely twisted. The detective greeted the person owning this face with the fervor of premed requirement NEOMA Business School old acquaintanceship: 'Eh, Buster! What's up?' 'Hello, Jimmy Finn! What yez doin' here?' 'Never mind, Buster. What's up?' 'Why, Jimmy, didn't yez know I lodges here now?' 'No, I didn't. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? Where? Who with?' 'Beyant, wid the Pensioner.' 'Go on. Show me where you lodge.' 'Sure, Jimmy, it isn't me as would lie to yez.' "But I had expressed a desire to penetrate into some of these kennels for crushed humanity; and premed requirement NEOMA Business School Finn, with the happy acumen of his tribe, seizing the crical marian catholic high school first plausible pretext, was relentless, and insisted on essay writing sites city, university of london doubting the word of the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok Buster. That unfortunate with the puffy face, who seemed to know his man too well to protract resistance, puffed ahead of us up the black, oozy court, with myriads of windows made ghastly by the pale flicker of kerosene lamps in essay writing support acs cobham international school, tiers above us, until he came to the last door but one upon the left side of the court, over which the letter S was sprawled upon the coping stone. The bullseye had been darkened, and when the Buster plunged through the doorway he was lost to sight in the impenetrable darkness beyond. We heard him though, stumbling against stairs that creaked dismally, and the premed requirement NEOMA Business School slide being drawn back, the friendly light made clear the way for him and premed requirement NEOMA Business School us. There was an premed requirement NEOMA Business School entry precisely like the one we had entered before, with a flight of narrow, almost perpendicular stairs, with so sharp a twist in them that we could see only premed requirement NEOMA Business School, half up. The banisters in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, sight had precisely three uprights, and writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok looked as if the whole thing would crumble at a touch; while the stairs were so smooth and thin with the treading of innumerable feet that they almost refused a foothold. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? Following the Buster, who grappled with the premed requirement NEOMA Business School steep and dangerous ascent with the daring born of essay writing sites city, university of london habit, I somehow got up stairs, wondering how any one ever got down in the dark without breaking his neck. Thinking it possible there might be a light sometimes to guide the pauper hosts from their hazardous heights to the stability of the street, I inquired as to the fact, only to meet the contempt of the Buster for the gross ignorance that could dictate such a question. 'A light for the stairs! Who'd give it? Sweeney? Not much! Or the tenants? Skasely! Them's too poor!' While he muttered, the Buster had pawed his way up stairs with surprising agility, until he reached a door on the third landing. Essay writing support ACS Cobham International School? Turning triumphantly to the detective, he announced: 'Here's where I lodges, Jimmy! You knows I wouldn't lie to yez.' "'We'll see whether you would or no,' said Finn, tapping on the premed requirement NEOMA Business School door. Being told to come in, he opened it; and writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok on this trivial but dexterous pretext we invaded the premed requirement NEOMA Business School sanctity of a home. "No tale is premed requirement NEOMA Business School so good as one plainly told, and I tell precisely what I saw. This home was composed, in the parlance of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School place, of a 'room and premed requirement NEOMA Business School bedroom.' The room was about twelve feet square, and eight feet from floor to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, ceiling. It had two windows opening upon the court, and a large fireplace filled with a cooking stove. In the way of premed requirement NEOMA Business School additional furniture, it had a common deal table, three broken wooden chairs, a few dishes and cooking utensils, and two 'shakedowns,' as the piles of premed requirement NEOMA Business School straw stuffed into bed-ticks are called; but it had nothing whatever beyond these articles. There was not even the remnant of a bedstead; not a cheap print, so common in the hovels of the poor, to relieve the blankness of the rough, whitewashed walls. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? The bedroom, which was little more than half the size of the other, was that outrage of capital upon premed requirement NEOMA Business School poverty known as a 'dark room,' by which is meant that it had no window opening to the outer air; and premed requirement NEOMA Business School this closet had no furniture whatever except two 'shakedowns.' "In the contracted space of these two rooms, and supplied with these scanty appliances for comfort, nine human beings were stowed. First there was the 'Pensioner,' a man of about i need help writing an essay the storm king school, thirty-five years, next his wife, then their three children, a woman lodger with two children, and the premed requirement NEOMA Business School 'Buster,' the latter paying fifteen cents per night for crical marian catholic high school, his shelter; but I did not learn the amount paid by the woman for the accommodation of herself and premed requirement NEOMA Business School children. The Buster, having been indignant at my inquiry as to the light upon the stairs, was now made merry by Finn supposing he had a regular bed and bedstead for the money. 'Indade, he has not, but a "shakedown" like the rest of us,' said the woman; but the Buster rebuked this assumption of an impossible prosperity by promptly exclaiming, 'Whist! ye knows I stretch on the boords without any shakedown whatsumdever.' "Finn was of opinion the bed was hard but healthy, and fixing his eyes on the Buster's flabby face thought it possible he had any desirable number of 'square meals' per essay writing support acs cobham international school day; but that individual limited his acquirements in that way for the day then closed to four. Finn then touching on the number of drinks, the premed requirement NEOMA Business School Buster, being driven into conjecture and a corner by the problem, was thrust out of the foreground of our investigations. "By various wily tricks of his trade, Detective Finn managed to premed requirement NEOMA Business School, get a deal of information out of the Pensioner without seeming to be either inquisitive or intrusive, or even without rubbing the i need help writing an essay the storm king school coat of his poverty the wrong way. From this source I learned that five dollars per month was paid as rent for these two third-floor rooms, and i need help writing an essay the storm king school that everybody concerned deemed them dirt cheap at the price. Light was obtained from kerosene lamps at writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok, the expense of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School tenant, and water had to be carried from the court below, while all refuse matter not emptied into the court itself, had to be taken to the foul vaults beneath it. The rooms, having all these drawbacks, and being destitute of the commonest appliances for comfort or decency, did not appear to be in the highest degree eligible; yet the Pensioner considered himself fortunate in having secured them. Essay writing support ACS Cobham International School? His experience in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, living must have been very doleful, for buy coursework caterham school, he declared that he had seen worse places. In itself, and so far as the landlord was concerned, I doubted him; but I had myself seen fouler places than these two rooms, which had been made so by the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok tenants. All that cleanliness could do to essay writing sites city, university of london, make the kennel of the Pensioner habitable had been done, and premed requirement NEOMA Business School I looked with more respect upon the uncouth woman who had scoured the rough floor white, than I ever had upon i need help writing an essay the storm king school a gaudily attired dame sweeping Broadway with her silken trail. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? The thrift that had so little for its nourishment had not been expended wholly upon the floor, for I noticed that the premed requirement NEOMA Business School two children asleep on the shakedown were clean, while the premed requirement NEOMA Business School little fellow four years of age, who was apparently prepared for bed as he was entirely naked, but sat as yet upon one of the three chairs, had no speck of dirt upon his fair white skin. A painter should have seen him as he gazed wonderingly upon us, and my respect deepened for the woman who could, spite the hard lines of her rugged life, bring forth and preserve so much of childish symmetry and written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas beauty. "Having absorbed these general facts, I turned to the master of this household. He was a man of small stature but rugged frame, and his left shirt sleeve dangled empty at his side. That adroit Finn, noticing my inquiring look, blurted out: 'That arm went in a street accident, I suppose?' "'No, sir; it wint at the battle of Spottsylvania.' "Here was a hero! The narrow limits of his humble home expanded to embrace the brown and essay writing sites city, university of london kneaded Virginian glades as I saw them just seven years ago, pictured with the lurid pageantry of that stubborn fight when Sedgwick fell. This man, crammed with his family into twelve feet square at the top of Sweeney's Shambles, was once part of that glorious scene. In answer to my test questions he said he belonged to the Thirty-ninth New York, which was attached to the Second Corps, and that he received a pension of $15 per month from the grateful country he had served as payment in full for premed requirement NEOMA Business School, an arm. It was enough to keep body and soul together, and he could not complain. Nor could I; but I could and did signify to my guide by a nod that I had seen and heard enough, and we went down again into the slimy, reeking court." There is premed requirement NEOMA Business School a square on the East side bounded by Houston, Stanton, Pitt, and essay writing support acs cobham international school Willett streets. It contains a group of three front and seven rear houses, and is known as "Rag-pickers' Row." These ten houses contain a total of 106 families, or 452 persons. All these persons are rag-pickers, or more properly chiffonniers, for their business is to pick up every thing saleable they can find in the streets. Formerly they brought their gatherings to this place and assorted them here before taking them to the junk stores to sell them. Now, however, they assort them elsewhere, and buy coursework caterham school their wretched dwellings are as clean as it is premed requirement NEOMA Business School possible to keep them. They are generally peaceable and essay writing sites city, university of london quiet, and their quarrels are commonly referred to the buy coursework caterham school agent in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, charge of the row, who decides them to their satisfaction. They are very industrious in their callings, and some of them have money in the Savings banks. Nearly all who have children send them to the Mission Schools. Note : See 88 -90 Sheriff Street for more information on the rag pickers of Lower Manhattan. MLB. The Board of premed requirement NEOMA Business School Health, in one of premed requirement NEOMA Business School their recent publications, express themselves as follows: "The worst class of tenement houses was those where a landlord had accommodations for ten families, and these buildings comprise more than half of the tenement houses of the city, and accommodate fully two-thirds of the entire tenement-house population. When the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok number of families living under one owner exceeded ten, it was found that such owner was engaged in the keeping of a tenement-house as a business, and generally as a speculator. It is among this class of owners that nearly all the evils of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School tenement-house system are found. The little colony exhibit in their rooms, and in the premed requirement NEOMA Business School little areas around their dwellings, extreme want of care. The street in front of the place was reeking with slops and garbage; the alleys and passage ways were foul with excrements; the court was imperfectly paved, wet, and covered with domestic refuse; the privies, located in essay writing sites city, university of london, a close court between the rear and front houses, were dilapidated, and gave out volumes of premed requirement NEOMA Business School noisome odors, which filled the written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas whole area, and were diffused through all the rooms opening upon it; and the essay writing support acs cobham international school halls and apartments of the wretched occupants were close, unventilated, and unclean. The complaint was universal among the premed requirement NEOMA Business School tenants that they are entirely uncared for, and i need help writing an essay the storm king school that the only answer to their request to have the place put in order, by repairs and necessary improvements, was, that they must pay their rent or leave. Inquiry often disclosed the fact that the owner of the property was a wealthy gentleman or lady, either living in an aristocratic part of the city or in i need help writing an essay the storm king school, a neighboring city, or, as was occasionally found to be the written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas case, in premed requirement NEOMA Business School, Europe. The property is usually managed entirely by an agent, whose instructions are simple, but emphatic, viz., 'collect the rent in advance, or, failing, eject the occupants.' The profits on this sort of property, so administered, are rarely less than fifteen per cent., and more generally thirty per cent. upon the investment." The evils of the tenement house system are almost incalculable. It is the experience of all nations that barrack life is demoralizing, and the tenement house is but a barrack without the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok rigid discipline of a military establishment. Its inmates know no such thing as privacy. Home is but a word with them. They have habitations, but not homes. Within the same walls are gathered the virtuous and the premed requirement NEOMA Business School depraved, the honest laborer and the thief. There can be no such thing as shielding the young from buy coursework caterham school improper outside influences. They have every opportunity to written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas, become thoroughly corrupted without leaving the house. Decency is premed requirement NEOMA Business School impossible. Families exist in the greatest amount of personal discomfort, and the children take every opportunity to escape from the house into the streets. The tenement houses every year send many girls into the ranks of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School street walkers, and a greater number of young men into the ranks of the roughs and thieves. Drunkenness is very common among the inhabitants of these houses. Men and women are literally driven into intemperance by the discomfort in which they live. Nearly all the domestic murders occurring in the city are perpetrated in the tenement houses. premed requirement NEOMA Business School? Immorality is crical marian catholic high school very common. Indeed, the latter crime is the logical result of such dense packing of the sexes. It is a terrible thing to contemplate, but it is a fact that one half of the population of this great city is subjected to the demoralizing influences of these vast barracks. The laboring class, who should constitute the backbone and sinew of the writing a persuasive paper the regentís international school, bangkok community, are thus degraded to a level with paupers, forced to herd among them, and to adopt a mode of life which is utterly destructive of the characteristics which should distinguish them. It is no wonder that crime is so common in the Metropolis. The real wonder is essay writing support acs cobham international school that it does not defy all restraint. The tenement houses are afflicted with a terrible mortality. Says Dr. Harris, "Consumption and all the inflammatory diseases of the premed requirement NEOMA Business School lungs vie with the infectious and other zymotic disorders, in written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas, wasting the health and destroying the life of the tenement population." Of late years a new disease, the premed requirement NEOMA Business School relapsing fever, which, though rarely fatal, destroys the health and premed requirement NEOMA Business School vigor of buy coursework caterham school its victims, has made havoc among the tenement population. The mortality among children is very great, and written argumentative essays simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas perhaps this is fortunate for them, for it would seem that death in their first flush of innocence is far better than a life of wretchedness and perhaps of infamy. Small pox and all the i need help writing an essay the storm king school contagious and premed requirement NEOMA Business School infectious diseases would make short work with the i need help writing an essay the storm king school tenement-house population, were any of premed requirement NEOMA Business School them to essay writing support acs cobham international school, become epidemic in the city. There would be nothing to check them, and the unfortunate people living in these sections would find no means of escaping from them. Lights and Shadows of premed requirement NEOMA Business School New York , Sights and Sensations of the Great City, 1872, James Dabney McCabe Jr 1842-1883.