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travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School

Categorized among the early Shakespearean comedies, The Taming of the Shrew (c. 1590-91) has become one of the playwright's most controversial works. While Elizabethan audiences may have viewed the piece with amusement and approval, the story of the spirited, rebellious, and sharp-witted Katherina (Kate), forced by her father to marry the equally exuberant and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School willful Petruchio, generally fails to correspond to a modern sensibility of the proper bond between husband and wife. The tactics by which Petruchio transforms Katherina's obstinacy into obedience, as well as the drama's undercurrent of violence and cruelty, are perceived by many critics as unsettling in a play principally concerned with marriage. Whereas nineteenth-century commentators dismissed the drama as a simple farce of little serious consequence, modern scholars find much in the play that merits serious study. Write a good essay University College London (UCL)! Many critics have endeavored to explicate the troubling elements of the play, and are particularly interested in Katherina's apparent submission to her husband in the play's final act. Summarizing its enigmatic appeal, Oxford Shakespeare editor H. J. Oliver (1982) observes the ways in which Shakespeare transformed and improved upon his numerous sources for The Taming of the Shrew to fashion a piece that, despite certain limitations, fascinates with its intriguing subject: the what is an academic journal article algonquin college clash of sexes. Contemporary character-based studies of critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management, The Taming of the Shrew have almost invariably focused on the how i write essay limkokwing university drama's central and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School dominating figures, Katherina and Petruchio. This volatile relationship is the subject of Ruth Nevo's (1980) appraisal, which emphasizes the dynamics of “sexual battle” that drive the play. Nevo dissects the fundamental subject of The Taming of the Shrew —locating a suitable mate for the “wild, intractable and shrewish daughter of Baptista”—and the conflict of wills that ensues. Critical thinking psychology Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management! Analyzing Petruchio's verbal strategies in wooing and taming his wife, Nevo observes that Katherina largely responds to his cues, and suggests that the play steadily informs us that by its final act Kate is truly in love with her husband. Other critics have taken a wider, social view of Katherina's taming. Velvet D. Pearson (1990) sees the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School process of subduing Baptista's eldest daughter on travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School stage as a barometer of changing social attitudes toward women from the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School nineteenth to twentieth centuries, ranging from a traditional view of Katherina and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Petruchio as two individuals learning to how to write a poetry essay concord college, love one another to a more modern vision that champions Katherina's assertiveness and intellectual freedom. Harriet A. Deer (1991), while acknowledging that the play presents a strongly chauvinist subtext, argues that in The Taming of the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Shrew Shakespeare creatively undercut conventional stereotypes associated with the shrew and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School braggart figures, which provide the theatrical basis for Katherina's and Petruchio's characters, in order to reveal the deeply patriarchal suppositions of Elizabethan marriage. Despite its potentially disturbing representation of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, gender conflict, The Taming of the Shrew continues to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, be one of Shakespeare's most frequently performed comedies. Charles Isherwood's evaluates the 1999 Public Theater production staged in travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School New York City's Central Park, directed by Mel Shapiro. Isherwood finds this performance, which primarily appealed to low humor with an unyielding silliness and multitude of crude jokes, an affront to the emotional complexities of Shakespeare's characters and story. While Isherwood admires Allison Janney's outstanding Katherina, he laments Shapiro's overall disregard for the emotional subtleties of the drama in favor of eye-catching comic additions. Similarly, Ben Brantley (1999) finds Richard Rees's 1999 Williamstown Theater Festival production of The Taming of the Shrew disappointing. For Brantley, one of the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School saving elements of what is an academic journal article algonquin college, this “fast, furious, and overstuffed interpretation” was Bebe Neuwirth's convincingly performed Katherina. Elysa Gardner (2000) praises director Victoria Liberatori's musically enhanced Taming of the Shrew set in a retro, 1970s style and performed by the Princeton Repertory Theater in 2000. Gardner contends that this seemingly odd setting offered an excellent commentary on the play by evoking the sexual revolution and the women's rights movement. How i write essay Limkokwing University! Lastly, D. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! J. R. Bruckner (2001) comments on critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college Liz Shipman's use of the critically contentious induction scene that opens The Taming of the how i write essay limkokwing university Shrew in her 2001 production with the King County Shakespeare Company. Bruckner finds nearly all of Shipman's directorial interpretations beneficial to the drama and approves of the ensemble performance. Recent thematic criticism regarding The Taming of the Shrew has generally focused on two key topics: transformation and the socially dictated roles of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, women. Jeanne Addison Roberts (1983) explores the theme of metamorphosis in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School play, beginning with its induction scene and the mock conversion of the drunken tinker Christopher Sly into a nobleman. Roberts goes on to study the pervasive imagery of transformation in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School play, such as the emblematic transformation of a married couple into how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university, a single entity represented by a hermaphrodite, and the symbolic metamorphosis of humans into write a good essay university college london (ucl), animals—particularly the association between woman and horse. Approaching the transformation theme from a sharply contrasting perspective, Barry Weller (1992) studies the problematic relationship between The Taming of the Shrew 's induction and main plot. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! Noting that Christopher Sly's dream induction to the how to write a poetry essay concord college drama is travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, rife with allusions to write a good essay university college london (ucl), theatricality, Weller suggests that Katherina's ostensible metamorphosis from assertive shrew to servile wife, when viewed through this frame, should be regarded with at least a degree of skepticism. Shifting to issues of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, gender in critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management The Taming of the Shrew, Erika Gottlieb (1986) considers Katherina's rebellious actions in the play as a kind of ideological assault on the Great Chain of Being, a traditional hierarchical structure that dominated early modern thinking. While Katherina rails against her social placement below man in this scheme, Gottlieb observes that Shakespeare's final statement on the matter remains ambivalent. Gary Schneider (2002) presents a feminist-materialist assessment of the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School social world depicted in The Taming of the Shrew. Schneider maintains that in the play, the theater becomes a site of “social control” where Katherina becomes the mouthpiece for patriarchal rhetoric. According to Schneider, Katherina's final speech is meant to act as a kind of critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management, sermon that encourages the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School female audience members to exhibit proper behavior. SOURCE: Oliver, H. J. How i write essay Limkokwing University! Introduction to The Oxford Shakespeare: “The Taming of the critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college Shrew,” edited by H. J. Oliver, pp. Critical thinking attitudes Glenalmond College! 1-76. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. [ In the following excerpted introduction to The Taming of the Shrew, Oliver surveys the play's sources, style, themes, structure, and characterization. ] THE STORY OF CHRISTOPHER SLY. No one source for critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college, the ‘Induction’ of The Taming of the Shrew has yet been found, and none need be sought: Shakespeare may well have first heard at his mother's knee some version of the universal tale of what is an academic journal article algonquin college, how a sleeper or drunken man, when he awoke to find himself dressed in fine clothes, was deceived into believing that he was really a lord, or of how to write a poetry essay concord college, some such high rank, and that what he thought to be his memories of his earlier life were delusions. The form of the story most widely known today is that in travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School The Arabian Nights, where the Caliph Haroun al Raschid plays the trick on Abu Hassan (and although The Arabian Nights as such was not known in Europe until the eighteenth century, it is perhaps worth recalling that the what is an academic journal article algonquin college stories in it may have been collected as early as the fourteenth and in origin may go back many centuries before that). Discussion of critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management, Shakespeare's acquiring of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, this fable was put on the wrong track years ago when Thomas Warton stated in his History of what is an academic journal article algonquin college, English Poetry (1774-81) that Shakespeare found the story in a collection of prose tales made by Richard Edwards in 1570. Then in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School papers of the Shakespeare Society in 1845, H. G. Norton, from loose printed leaves in his possession, published such a tale, calling it ‘The Waking Mans Dreame’ and assuming that it came from the book by how i write essay limkokwing university, Edwards, of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, which no copy had ever been seen. In 1913 A. E. Thiselton demonstrated that the tale printed by Norton supposedly from Edwards's (hypothetical) volume was in fact one of a collection of anecdotes, Admirable Events, translated by S. Du Verger from the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School French of J. P. Camus and not published until 1639; but this demonstration went almost unnoticed and the point had to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, be made again by Charles C. Mish in 1951. 1 The Edwards collection is apparently a ‘ghost’—but it haunts many scholarly discussions of Shakespeare's sources written even since 1951. It is, then, still necessary to say that no printed version of the story has been found earlier than Shakespeare's except the one in travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Latin by Heuterus, in De Rebus Burgundicis, 1584, which Shakespeare is not likely to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, have known: it was not translated into French, by Goulart, until about write a good essay university college london (ucl) 1600, or into English until 1607, by how to write a poetry essay concord college, Edward Grimeston. Grimeston's, the version printed by Geoffrey Bullough in write a good essay university college london (ucl) his Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 2 tells how Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, found ‘a certaine Artisan’ very drunk in the street, had him carried home to the palace, dressed in fine clothes, conducted to the Mass, waited on there, taken hunting and hawking, and entertained with ‘a pleasant Comedie’, before being carried back, drunk again, to where he was found. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! The tale is told in a completely different tone from Shakespeare's, to draw moral lessons about the vanity of state—but one suspects that if it were not safely dated 1607, somebody could long since have ‘proved’ by verbal parallels that Shakespeare used it. Perhaps some day an what is an academic journal article algonquin college, earlier translation will be found. It may be difficult to name a source for the Sly scenes, but it is not difficult to appreciate them. From the moment of the entry of Sly and the Hostess—an opening sure to capture the attention of an audience, particularly if Sly reels on travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School to the stage as if he has been thrown out of the how to write a poetry essay concord college alehouse—the pace does not slacken. The tinker's drunken recalcitrance is how i write essay limkokwing university, caught in just a few sentences; his intellectual limitations are well established by his references to Richard Conqueror and Saint Jeronimy and by his fondness for the catch phrases from The Spanish Tragedy. How i write essay Limkokwing University! Within a few minutes the Lord and his train have come on, and their knowledgeable discussion of the hounds, in technically correct language—but in only fourteen lines—has made the necessary contrast with the peasant and has also added to the what is an academic journal article algonquin college already convincing details of life in a ‘real’ countryside. The plan to deceive Sly is outlined in the firmest of language—noticeable particularly are the precise active verbs, ‘take him up’, ‘carry him’, ‘hang it round’, ‘balm his foul head’, and so on—and the audience is eager to see what will happen. Not many plays have openings as competent, theatrically, as this: it is, albeit in a completely different tone, comparable with the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School magnificent beginning of the much later Othello. The entry of the players provides further variety in stage ‘action’ before plans are worked out both for how i write essay limkokwing university, their share in the tricking of Sly and for travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, the share of the page who is to be Sly's wife. How to write a good compare and contrast essay Bournemouth University! The exchange about Soto makes a private joke with the audience and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School so helps to maintain its feeling of complicity, in however small a way. Sly is brought forward again, ‘aloft’, and the interest now is in the psychological changes as he is faced with the new situation. The first mood, after he wakes calling ‘For God's sake, a pot of small ale’, is the surliness, the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School truculence that has already been seen: ‘call not me “honour” nor “lordship”. I ne'er drank sack in my life … Ne'er ask me what raiment I'll wear …’ and so on. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! Surliness is succeeded by plain anger, that he should be made a victim of what he naturally assumes to be their mockery of him: ‘What, would you make me mad? Am not I Christopher Sly … ?’ (and there follows the sequence of local allusions, to ‘Burton-heath’ and Marian Hacket and Wincot, which certainly builds up ‘atmosphere’, even if Shakespeare is amusing himself at the same time). Then there is a period while the others talk at Sly, and he remains silent and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School presumably perplexed; when he does speak, it is what is an academic journal article algonquin college, to announce his decision to make the best of it and enjoy both the small ale (he is still, of course, continually giving himself away) and the company of his ‘lady’. As Hazlitt delightedly—and delightfully—put it, ‘we have a great predilection’ for him. 3. Detailed comment would be superfluous on Sly's guarded dialogue with the servants, or his blunder over the aristocratic way to address a wife (‘“Al'ce madam”, or “Joan madam”? … Madam wife, they say …’) or his willingness to watch the critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management comedy to be played before him, though he is none too sure what a comedy is. There is, however, some need for comment on the search for ‘meaning’ in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Sly section, and on its dramatic function. Whereas once there would have been general agreement with F. A. Marshall's opinion that The Taming of the Shrew ‘is the one of Shakespeare's plays most devoid of serious interest, not excepting the Comedy of Errors ', 4 it has become orthodoxy to claim to find in the Induction the same ‘theme’ as is to be found in both the Bianca and the Katherine-Petruchio plots of the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School main play and to take it for travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, granted that identity of theme is a merit and ‘justifies’ the introduction of Sly. Such a claim is seen in its extreme form in the statement that the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School three segments of the play ‘are all linked in idea because all contain discussion of the relations of the sexes in marriage’. 5 So do Othello, and Hamlet, and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Macbeth, and critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college even King Lear. The situation is not saved by the statements that The Shrew deals with ‘different ways of wooing and holding a wife’ and write a good essay university college london (ucl) portrays ‘different kinds of wives and husbands. The Shrew becomes thereby a drama with more social and intellectual substance than The Comedy of Errors, but in presenting shrewishness and preaching morality it resembles that play.’ 6 What The Shrew has to say about wooing a wife can be—and in the play itself is—put in a few sentences; and how i write essay limkokwing university if one were to read the comedy—or The Comedy of Errors or for that matter any early Shakespearian comedy—for its ‘social and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School intellectual substance’ or to see what it preaches, then—if Dr Johnson's famous phrase about reading the novels of Samuel Richardson for the story may be adapted—‘your impatience would be so much fretted that you would hang yourself’. If, as Meredith said in write a good essay university college london (ucl) his Essay on Comedy, the how to write a poetry essay concord college test of true comedy is that it should awaken thoughtful laughter, probably The Taming of the Shrew qualifies—but only write a good essay university college london (ucl), just. It is also debatable whether discussion is much advanced by the more widely held theories that the Induction, the Bianca story, and the how to write a poetry essay concord college taming form a unified play because each deals with ‘assumptions about travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School identity’ and ‘assumptions about travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School personality’. 7 An alternative version is that the write a good essay university college london (ucl) plots are all based on ‘supposes’—the ‘counterfeit supposes’ of 5.1.106, with the implied reference to Gascoigne's Supposes, the source of the critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college Bianca plot. 8 Such theories seem to what is an academic journal article algonquin college, derive from D. A. Stauffer's suggestion that the play demonstrates that people can become—or, indeed, are—what others think they are or treat them as being. Sly is compared with Katherine: ‘there is something deeper than humor, however, in Petruchio's calling Katherine affable, modest, and mild: in the outcome, thinking makes it so’. 9 Is it too late in the day to insist that it is not ‘thinking’ that makes it so—neither Petruchio's nor Katherine's—and that Sly does not become what others pretend him to be? The terms used in all these interpretations are far too wide: the sense in which Sly (for the minute) ‘assumes a new personality’ is quite different from the sense in which Kate is thought to assume one. Does she in fact ever assume one? Perhaps she merely learns that in certain circumstances certain kinds of behaviour do not work. Bianca, of course, does not assume a new personality at all: Lucentio finally sees her in her true colours, as the audience, if it has any acuity or theatrical experience, will have predicted from the first scene in which she appears. Assumptions about identity and assumptions about personality may be wildly different things. And it is simply not true that ‘Sly's story is in effect “finished” when, like Kate, he has been persuaded to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, accept a new personality’. 10 He remains in the play after that, to watch a comedy—and not only to watch it but also to comment on it: ‘'Tis a very excellent piece of work, madam lady: would 'twere done!’—and Sly's attitude to the play within the play is crucial to the attitude to it of the audience in the ‘real’ theatre. How to write a good compare and contrast essay Bournemouth University! The Sly Induction does not so much announce the theme of the enclosed stories as establish their tone. There are many reasons for travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, telling a story indirectly or putting it within a framework—as, for example, a play can be enclosed within a play. Sometimes, as in Defoe, the main tale is how to write a poetry essay concord college, wrapped up in discussion about the narrator, and the author's knowledge of the veracity of the narrator and what is an academic journal article algonquin college so on, as a kind of camouflage, with the aim of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, causing a reader to what is an academic journal article algonquin college, quibble, if at all, about what does not matter so that the main story will remain unchallenged. It is a method of making the enclosed story more realistic, more credible. Something similar, although far more sophisticated, is seen in the novels of, say, Joseph Conrad; if Conrad tells us about Marlow who helps with others to critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college, tell us about travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Lord Jim (or Kurtz, in Heart of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, Darkness ), it is, partly, that we may believe more readily in the ‘truth’ of the story and also that attention may be given to the analysis of the complex moral issues that the story raises: Marlow's opinion, among others, is accepted, rejected or modified by the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School reader only because he for the minute accepts the ‘reality’ of both Marlow and Jim. The moral or intellectual debate in a sense presupposes the reality of the characters. Similarly, in a less complex and indeed unsophisticated use of the how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university technique, a film or play will start with an ‘I remember’ followed by a dramatization of what is remembered—the aim again being greater conviction. More often, however, the ‘enclosing’ technique works in exactly the opposite way. If in a film the characters go to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, see a film, the film they see is travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, quite remote: it is at one further move from the ‘reality’ of the audience in the ‘real’ cinema. Similarly if a play on a small scale is put within a play, what happens in the enclosed play is write a good essay university college london (ucl), not ‘believed’ at all. Examples would be ‘The Mousetrap’ in Hamlet and ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’ in A Midsummer Night's Dream —both of which, of how i write essay limkokwing university, course, are further ‘distanced’ by other methods and notably by a deliberately artificial and old fashioned style. Since, however, these are short and in some ways special, it may be better to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, look for what is an academic journal article algonquin college, a parallel to the technique of The Shrew in travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School a play in which the enclosed story is the longer and the enclosing story apparently no more than a way of introducing it. Just such a play is George Peele's The Old Wives Tale, the exact date of which is uncertain but which undoubtedly belongs within a few years of how i write essay limkokwing university, The Shrew. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! In Peele's play as in Shakespeare's the audience is introduced in the Induction to how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university, realistically drawn rustics who are contrasted with more aristocratic and intellectual types; and Peele's delightfully down-to-earth Old Wife, Madge, begins to tell a typical old wife's tale which is then, as it were, acted out for her by the players, with all the inconsecutiveness and the crossed lines of the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School story as it would be if she told it. How to write a good compare and contrast essay Bournemouth University! And, of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, course, we do not ‘believe’ a word of it, and have been told not to believe it—and enjoy it the more. What is an academic journal article Algonquin College! The Taming of the Shrew is in some ways very similar: the enclosed story is how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university, not told by an uninformed and how i write essay limkokwing university unimaginative rustic but it is put on critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college to amuse one; we ‘believe’ in Sly but do not really believe in Lucentio, or Bianca—or Petruchio. The phenomenon of theatrical illusion is itself being laughed at; and the play within the play makes Sly drowsy and probably soon sends him to sleep. Are we to let that play ‘preach morality’ to us or look in it for ‘social and intellectual substance’? The drunken tinker may be believed in as one believes in travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School any realistically presented character; but we cannot ‘believe’ in something that is not even mildly interesting to how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university, him. The play within the play has been presented only after all the how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university preliminaries have encouraged us to take it as a farce (meaning by that not slapstick, but a broader kind of comedy not involving ‘engagement’ with the characters). We have been warned. Why, then, having begun the Induction, might Shakespeare have decided not to continue with it to the end; or—what is for this purpose much the same question—if he did at first continue with it, in a form of which A Shrew gives us some idea, albeit inadequate, why might he have changed his mind and decided to cut it short? There are, in the first place, some purely practical, theatrical, considerations that may have weighed with him. It has been suggested, for example, that there was a staging problem because the presence of Sly and the ‘presenters’ ‘aloft’ made the critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management use of the ‘upper stage’ for how i write essay limkokwing university, another purpose difficult; and the raised acting area does seem to be needed again in 5.1 when, as F1 has it, the how to write a poetry essay concord college ‘ Pedant lookes out of the write a good essay university college london (ucl) window ’ (l. 2397). 11 There may be something in this, although not enough is certain about the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School ‘upper stage’ in Elizabethan theatres for the argument to carry full conviction; it was not necessarily impossible to keep Sly's party well away from the ‘window’ required for the Pedant. (Conceivably the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School form of the Induction in A Shrew, which has Sly on the main stage throughout, represents some intermediate, experimental version that tried to get over the problem of the differing uses of the area ‘aloft’; alternatively, … the compilers of A Shrew—if they were thinking that the text they compiled might be acted by, for example, touring companies—may have had in mind the limitations of stages and theatres other than those for which the Shakespeare play was written.) The staging would not seem to have been so difficult as to what is an academic journal article algonquin college, make necessary by itself the decision not to continue the Sly story after Act I Scene I. A greater difficulty was, perhaps, casting, although again it cannot be said that an Elizabethan company could not have coped with the problems of the full framework (including in that phrase both the carrying through of Sly's comments as in A Shrew and the alternative possibility of leaving him and others, even though they remain silent, in view of the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School audience throughout). If the actors of Sly, the Lord, and the Page in the Induction are not available to play other roles, then The Taming of the Shrew requires a cast of sixteen to play named parts (plus a few odd servants), of critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management, whom at least four would be boys (the Page, Kate, Bianca, the how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university Widow)—five if a boy played Biondello; and it may have been necessary—if the how to write a poetry essay concord college company could not rise to this number—to introduce some doubling, not merely by ending the Sly story when it does end in the how i write essay limkokwing university Folio text but also by getting him and his fellow presenters off the stage altogether. 12 One caveat may be entered: it has perhaps been too readily assumed that because the Lord remains on the stage with Sly in A Shrew, he must remain with Sly, if Sly remains, in critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management The Shrew. This is not so. The Lord could leave the Induction for the last time at 2.114 and be available for how i write essay limkokwing university, Vincentio or any other role thereafter, unless he is made to be the ‘Messenger’ of Induction 2.125.1 (itself involving an almost impossibly rapid change of costume) and also the ‘1. Man. ’ who is one of the ‘Presenters’ still watching the play at the end of 1.1. 13 If these two very minor roles are given to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, a minor actor or hired man, then only Sly and the boy-Page-‘wife’ are being ‘wasted’ if they are kept on stage; but certainly if they are removed from the view of the audience, ‘Sly’ can play the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Pedant later, and the boy can play the Widow in the final scene. 14 (Perhaps it should be added—in view of some rather wild theorizing about Sly's ‘dream’—that the actor playing Sly cannot conceivably play Petruchio if the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Folio text is adhered to; Sly must ‘sit and marke’, at least for a while, and the very first thing he is travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, required to mark is the entrance of Petruchio. 15 ) William Ringler's analysis of The Two Gentlemen of Verona, however, has suggested that Shakespeare as a young dramatist did not always use his actors economically, and has shown that he probably could count on twelve adult actors and four boys if he really needed them. It may therefore be wiser to look beyond the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School casting, as well as the stage, for explanations of the dramatist's final preference for the ‘incomplete’ framework and to consider the possibility that the final form of the play is in fact the better for aesthetic reasons. If what has been argued earlier in this Introduction is write a good essay university college london (ucl), correct, the main purpose of the Induction was to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, set the tone for the play-within-the-play—in particular, to present the story of how i write essay limkokwing university, Kate and her sister as a none-too-serious comedy put on to divert a drunken tinker. The artificial style of the beginning of 1.1 is perhaps further indication that we are not expected to become too involved in the Lucentio—Bianca—disguises plot; we are told that it more or less put Sly to sleep; and critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management only then are we invited to watch also Petruchio's campaign to tame the shrew. As that tale goes on and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School especially when Kate is introduced, it gradually changes key and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School it does become, for a while, more realistic and convincing (and an attempt will be made later to justify this claim); but it never for long loses its basically farcical character, and it ends, perfectly logically for a farce, with the shrew not only tamed but also prepared to instruct the untamed wives on the social desirability of tameness. That last scene has been taken literally by, for example, G. I. Duthie, who wrote that ‘What Shakespeare emphasizes here is the foolishness of trying to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, destroy order’. 16 He can take such a view, however, only because for him the Induction is finally irrelevant (indeed, in this discussion he does not so much as mention its existence); for critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management, him, all the hints about the how to write a poetry essay concord college nature of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, theatrical illusion have been in vain; because Kate is straightfaced, he believes what she has said. Others, holding that ‘the best in this kind are but shadows’, as Shakespeare was to put it later, and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School remembering that this particular shadow was for the amusement of a shadow, will have their doubts. The play as it stands is, in modern jargon, ‘open-ended’—and it is made not more ‘open’ but less so by having Sly, in a final scene, convinced that he now knows how to tame a shrew and by having Sly's friend not so sure. The reintroduction of the presenters would also, as has been suggested by several modern critics, run the risk of anticlimax and, one might add, of seeming to gild the lily. One does not improve a farce by ending it with the reminder that it may have been only a farce; far better to let the audience make that judgement, if it wishes to make it. Perhaps Shakespeare first tried the play with the full Sly framework, perhaps he did not; but at least one can say that he seems to have had very good reasons for his apparent decision to leave it ‘incomplete’ as it is now in the critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college approved text and (probably) to get Sly out of view of the audience early in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School play and let them forget him—until perhaps they have left the theatre and have time to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, wonder what happened to him and even, perhaps, what has happened to how to write a good compare and contrast essay bournemouth university, them. THE BIANCA SUBPLOT AND ‘SUPPOSES’ At least there is no dispute about the main source for the part of The Taming of the Shrew that deals with Bianca and her suitors. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! Shakespeare even alludes to it, and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School paraphrases it, when he has Lucentio reveal his identity, with the critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college words: The source was George Gascoigne's Supposes. Its title-page describes it as ‘a Comedie written in the Italian tongue by Ariosto Englished by George Gascoygne of Grayes Inne Esquire, and there presented 1566’ (and there is travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, an apparent record of a later private performance at Oxford, in Trinity College, in January 1582 18 ). How to write a good compare and contrast essay Bournemouth University! Gascoigne was translating Ariosto's I Suppositi in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School original prose version in which it was acted at Ferrara in 1509 and at the Vatican in 1519 (although he may have known also Ariosto's rewriting of it in verse) and critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management his translation is thought to be the first English drama in prose (it anticipates Lyly by nearly twenty years). Gascoigne's play was easily available to Shakespeare, particularly in the collections The Posies of G. Critical thinking psychology Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management! Gascoigne (1575) 19 and The Whole Woorkes of G. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! Gascoigne (1587). In the Ariosto-Gascoigne story, Erostrato [Shakespeare's Lucentio], after falling in travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School love at first sight, has enjoyed for some time a secret liaison with Polynesta [Shakespeare's Bianca], daughter of Damon [Baptista]. Erostrato is able to arrange meetings because in disguise he has been employed by travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, Damon as a servant, Dulipo, while Erostrato's real servant Dulipo [Tranio] pretends to be the master Erostrato. The feigned Erostrato pretends to woo the critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college girl, as a way of frustrating a rival suitor, the aged Cleander [Gremio]. These two try to outbid each other with offers of lavish dowries; and to support his claim Erostrato persuades a travelling stranger [the Pedant] to impersonate his real father Philogano [Vincentio]. Erostrato arranges this both by pretending that because of a ducal decision it is dangerous for a Sienese to be found in critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management Ferrara and by offering protection if the stranger will impersonate the father. How i write essay Limkokwing University! Matters come to a head when Polynesta is found to be pregnant (Shakespeare altered this, of course: he obviously wanted for his second female character one who to appearance had all the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School marks of the romantic heroine). travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! Dulipo is put into a dungeon (too ‘serious’ a fate for Shakespeare's kind of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, comedy); from Sicily 20 arrives ‘the right Philogano the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School right father of the right Erostrato’, to find both that Dulipo is impersonating Erostrato and that a stranger is impersonating Erostrato's father, namely himself; but finally all is solved, and true identities revealed, and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School Cleander [Gremio] even discovers that Dulipo is the son he lost long ago after the battle of critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college, Otranto (and Shakespeare chose to avoid that improbability, which adds nothing of import to the story). For one character who looms large in the source but hardly affects the action—the typical parasite of classical comedy, Pasiphilo—Shakespeare found no place at all; not did his Bianca (since she was not pregnant) need a confidant-nurse. His main addition, which perhaps he saw as an alternative to these superfluous characters, was to complicate the action by giving Bianca a third suitor, Hortensio; and then—on second thoughts, if the how i write essay limkokwing university argument of the earlier part of this Introduction is travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, correct—he complicated it further by having Hortensio assume the disguise of Litio to compete with Erostrato/Lucentio in disguise as Cambio. In short, he added still more ‘supposes’ to those of which Gascoigne already thought so highly that he put notes in the write a good essay university college london (ucl) margin pointing them out lest the reader should miss any. 21. Gascoigne, as part of a whole series of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, quibbles on his title, explained in his ‘Prologue or Argument’: ‘But understand, this our Suppose is nothing else but a mystaking or imagination of one thing for an other. For you shall see the master supposed for the servant, the servant for the master: the freeman for travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, a slave, and the bondslave for travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, a freeman: the stranger for a well knowen friend, and the familiar for a stranger.’ His audience is kept amused by the misconceptions of the characters—as in the Plautine comedies of which Supposes is a direct descendant 22 —and is not invited (unless it be by the strong suspicion of irony in the Prologue and the how i write essay limkokwing university marginal notes) to wonder if it has misconceptions of its own. The interest, in short, is not in characterization but in plot, the audience watching to see what happens next and how the knots are untied. The Bianca section of Shakespeare's play, for the most part, is no different. 23 It is the kind of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, comedy that he attempted also in The Comedy of Errors, with its two pairs of identical twins (this time beginning from travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, Plautus' Mostellaria ); he attempted it again—albeit in write a good essay university college london (ucl) a very different tone—in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School parts of A Midsummer Night's Dream that follow from the anointing of the wrong lover's eyes with the juice of the magic flower, so that Demetrius and Lysander are temporarily infatuated with the wrong women. Being Shakespeare, he carried it off. A reader's head sometimes spins as he tries to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, remember whether Lucentio is critical thinking psychology les roches marbella international school of hotel management, Cambio or Litio and momentarily confuses the names of Grumio and Gremio—but in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School theatre all is clear, and the pace of the action is well maintained. Indeed it is increased towards the end and particularly in 5.1, where one seeming disaster after another falls on the bewildered Vincentio: he himself is being impersonated by a complete stranger; his son Lucentio's servant Biondello claims never to how i write essay limkokwing university, have seen him before; the other servant Tranio, whom he brought up in his own house, claims to be Lucentio; and for how i write essay limkokwing university, all this he, Vincentio, is threatened with imprisonment, until the problem is solved by Biondello's unfortunate entrance (unfortunate for Biondello) with Lucentio and Bianca, and his prompt exit with Tranio and the false father ‘as fast as may be’. It is all very fast indeed. Interestingly, it is in this scene that Shakespeare seems to have worked most closely from Gascoigne. He even borrows such a small detail as having the real father knock in how i write essay limkokwing university vain at the door for admittance to his own son's dwelling and be greeted by a stranger looking out of the window (although in Supposes the stranger is a servant and not the feigned father). There are also verbal reminiscences, albeit of commonplace phrases. travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! One example is Philogano's ‘What hast thou done with my son villain?’; Vincentio's ‘Tell me, thou villain, where is travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, my son … ?’ with the same expressed fear that the son has been murdered by his former servant. Another is how i write essay limkokwing university, Gascoigne's Philogano to travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, his own servant: ‘Do you not know me?’ ‘As farre as I remember Sir, I never saw you before’; Shakespeare's Vincentio: ‘What, have you forgot me?’ ‘Forgot you? No, sir. I could not forget you, for I never saw you before in all my life.’ This last example, with its improvement on Gascoigne in its colloquial tone and the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School balance of its calculated repetitions, is sufficient warning against equating Shakespeare with his sources. It is also noticeable how he avoids the traps into which others fall: he will not slow up the scene just discussed, for instance, or falsify its tone, by introducing passages of what is an academic journal article algonquin college, self-pity amounting to attempted pathos, such as ‘Alas, who shall relieve my miserable estate? to whom shall I complaine? … Alas, you might have some compassion of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, mine age …’. Nevertheless it remains true that it is the Gascoigne kind of comedy that he is writing in the Bianca scenes; and travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School (although a few caveats to this judgement will be entered later, in the travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School general discussion of the style) he does not attempt to alter that kind by elevating or enriching the language. It would not have been an improvement for Bianca to speak or be described in genuinely romantic terms; on the contrary, she must be seen, at first, as nothing but the conventional heroine sought by the hero of fiction, and in this capacity she will be contrasted with another type of travel writing essays Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School, woman, at first much less attractive, her spirited ‘real-life’ sister Kate. Shakespeare is not content, however, to leave it at that. He does not merely contrast one sister with another: he uses the younger as part of the critical thinking attitudes glenalmond college explanation of the acquired shrewishness of the elder, and so—for better or worse—also uses Bianca in write a good essay university college london (ucl) a. (The entire section is 12662 words.) Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.