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examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences

Categorized among the criticle thinking williston northampton school early Shakespearean comedies, The Taming of the Shrew (c. 1590-91) has become one of the playwright's most controversial works. While Elizabethan audiences may have viewed the piece with amusement and approval, the story of the spirited, rebellious, and sharp-witted Katherina (Kate), forced by her father to marry the example english essay writing marian catholic high school equally exuberant and willful Petruchio, generally fails to correspond to a modern sensibility of the proper bond between husband and wife. The tactics by which Petruchio transforms Katherina's obstinacy into obedience, as well as the drama's undercurrent of violence and cruelty, are perceived by many critics as unsettling in a play principally concerned with marriage. Write a article Taunton School! Whereas nineteenth-century commentators dismissed the drama as a simple farce of little serious consequence, modern scholars find much in the play that merits serious study. Many critics have endeavored to explicate the troubling elements of the play, and writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences are particularly interested in Katherina's apparent submission to her husband in the play's final act. Summarizing its enigmatic appeal, Oxford Shakespeare editor H. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! J. Oliver (1982) observes the ways in which Shakespeare transformed and improved upon criticle thinking williston northampton school, his numerous sources for examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences, The Taming of the Shrew to fashion a piece that, despite certain limitations, fascinates with its intriguing subject: the clash of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences sexes. Contemporary character-based studies of The Taming of the Shrew have almost invariably focused on the drama's central and dominating figures, Katherina and Petruchio. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! This volatile relationship is the subject of Ruth Nevo's (1980) appraisal, which emphasizes the dynamics of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences “sexual battle” that drive the play. Nevo dissects the fundamental subject of The Taming of the Shrew —locating a suitable mate for the “wild, intractable and shrewish daughter of Baptista”—and the conflict of wills that ensues. Analyzing Petruchio's verbal strategies in wooing and taming his wife, Nevo observes that Katherina largely responds to his cues, and suggests that the play steadily informs us that by its final act Kate is truly in love with her husband. Other critics have taken a wider, social view of Katherina's taming. Velvet D. Pearson (1990) sees the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences process of subduing Baptista's eldest daughter on examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences stage as a barometer of changing social attitudes toward women from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries, ranging from a traditional view of Katherina and Petruchio as two individuals learning to love one another to a more modern vision that champions Katherina's assertiveness and intellectual freedom. Harriet A. Deer (1991), while acknowledging that the play presents a strongly chauvinist subtext, argues that in writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences The Taming of the Shrew Shakespeare creatively undercut conventional stereotypes associated with the shrew and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences braggart figures, which provide the theatrical basis for Katherina's and writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences Petruchio's characters, in order to reveal the deeply patriarchal suppositions of Elizabethan marriage. Despite its potentially disturbing representation of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences gender conflict, The Taming of the Shrew continues to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences be one of writing a analytical essay american heritage school Shakespeare's most frequently performed comedies. Charles Isherwood's evaluates the 1999 Public Theater production staged in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences New York City's Central Park, directed by Mel Shapiro. Isherwood finds this performance, which primarily appealed to low humor with an unyielding silliness and example english essay writing marian catholic high school multitude of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences crude jokes, an affront to the emotional complexities of criticle thinking williston northampton school Shakespeare's characters and story. While Isherwood admires Allison Janney's outstanding Katherina, he laments Shapiro's overall disregard for the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences emotional subtleties of write a article taunton school the drama in favor of eye-catching comic additions. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! Similarly, Ben Brantley (1999) finds Richard Rees's 1999 Williamstown Theater Festival production of The Taming of the Shrew disappointing. For Brantley, one of the saving elements of this “fast, furious, and overstuffed interpretation” was Bebe Neuwirth's convincingly performed Katherina. Writing a analytical essay American Heritage School! Elysa Gardner (2000) praises director Victoria Liberatori's musically enhanced Taming of the Shrew set in a retro, 1970s style and performed by the Princeton Repertory Theater in 2000. Gardner contends that this seemingly odd setting offered an excellent commentary on the play by evoking the writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences sexual revolution and the women's rights movement. Lastly, D. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! J. Example english essay writing Marian Catholic High School! R. Bruckner (2001) comments on Liz Shipman's use of the critically contentious induction scene that opens The Taming of the Shrew in her 2001 production with the King County Shakespeare Company. Bruckner finds nearly all of Shipman's directorial interpretations beneficial to the drama and approves of the ensemble performance. Recent thematic criticism regarding The Taming of the Shrew has generally focused on two key topics: transformation and the socially dictated roles of women. Jeanne Addison Roberts (1983) explores the theme of metamorphosis in the play, beginning with its induction scene and the mock conversion of the drunken tinker Christopher Sly into a nobleman. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! Roberts goes on to study the pervasive imagery of transformation in the play, such as the emblematic transformation of a married couple into a single entity represented by a hermaphrodite, and the write a article taunton school symbolic metamorphosis of humans into animals—particularly the association between woman and horse. Approaching the transformation theme from a sharply contrasting perspective, Barry Weller (1992) studies the problematic relationship between The Taming of the Shrew 's induction and main plot. Noting that Christopher Sly's dream induction to the drama is rife with allusions to theatricality, Weller suggests that Katherina's ostensible metamorphosis from assertive shrew to servile wife, when viewed through this frame, should be regarded with at least a degree of skepticism. Shifting to issues of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences gender in The Taming of the Shrew, Erika Gottlieb (1986) considers Katherina's rebellious actions in the play as a kind of ideological assault on the writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences Great Chain of Being, a traditional hierarchical structure that dominated early modern thinking. While Katherina rails against her social placement below man in write a article taunton school this scheme, Gottlieb observes that Shakespeare's final statement on the matter remains ambivalent. Gary Schneider (2002) presents a feminist-materialist assessment of the social world depicted in The Taming of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the Shrew. Schneider maintains that in the play, the theater becomes a site of “social control” where Katherina becomes the criticle thinking williston northampton school mouthpiece for patriarchal rhetoric. According to Schneider, Katherina's final speech is meant to act as a kind of sermon that encourages the female audience members to exhibit proper behavior. SOURCE: Oliver, H. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! J. Introduction to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences The Oxford Shakespeare: “The Taming of the Shrew,” edited by H. J. Oliver, pp. Write my essay australia Nankai University (INTO)! 1-76. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. [ In the following excerpted introduction to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences The Taming of the Shrew, Oliver surveys the play's sources, style, themes, structure, and characterization. ] THE STORY OF CHRISTOPHER SLY. No one source for the ‘Induction’ of The Taming of the Shrew has yet been found, and none need be sought: Shakespeare may well have first heard at his mother's knee some version of the universal tale of how a sleeper or drunken man, when he awoke to find himself dressed in fine clothes, was deceived into believing that he was really a lord, or of some such high rank, and that what he thought to be his memories of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences his earlier life were delusions. The form of the story most widely known today is that in The Arabian Nights, where the writing a analytical essay american heritage school Caliph Haroun al Raschid plays the trick on write my essay australia nankai university (into) Abu Hassan (and although The Arabian Nights as such was not known in Europe until the eighteenth century, it is perhaps worth recalling that the stories in it may have been collected as early as the fourteenth and in origin may go back many centuries before that). Discussion of example english essay writing marian catholic high school Shakespeare's acquiring of this fable was put on the example english essay writing marian catholic high school wrong track years ago when Thomas Warton stated in his History of English Poetry (1774-81) that Shakespeare found the story in example english essay writing marian catholic high school a collection of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences prose tales made by Richard Edwards in 1570. Then in the papers of the Shakespeare Society in 1845, H. Writing a review of an article Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences! G. Norton, from loose printed leaves in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences his possession, published such a tale, calling it ‘The Waking Mans Dreame’ and write a article taunton school assuming that it came from the book by Edwards, of which no copy had ever been seen. In 1913 A. E. Thiselton demonstrated that the tale printed by Norton supposedly from Edwards's (hypothetical) volume was in fact one of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences a collection of anecdotes, Admirable Events, translated by S. Du Verger from the French of J. P. Camus and not published until 1639; but this demonstration went almost unnoticed and the point had to be made again by Charles C. Mish in 1951. 1 The Edwards collection is apparently a ‘ghost’—but it haunts many scholarly discussions of Shakespeare's sources written even since 1951. It is, then, still necessary to say that no printed version of the story has been found earlier than Shakespeare's except the one in Latin by Heuterus, in De Rebus Burgundicis, 1584, which Shakespeare is not likely to have known: it was not translated into French, by Goulart, until about 1600, or into English until 1607, by Edward Grimeston. Grimeston's, the version printed by Geoffrey Bullough in his Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 2 tells how Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, found ‘a certaine Artisan’ very drunk in the street, had him carried home to the palace, dressed in fine clothes, conducted to the example english essay writing marian catholic high school Mass, waited on there, taken hunting and hawking, and entertained with ‘a pleasant Comedie’, before being carried back, drunk again, to where he was found. The tale is told in a completely different tone from Shakespeare's, to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences draw moral lessons about the vanity of state—but one suspects that if it were not safely dated 1607, somebody could long since have ‘proved’ by verbal parallels that Shakespeare used it. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! Perhaps some day an earlier translation will be found. It may be difficult to name a source for the Sly scenes, but it is not difficult to writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences appreciate them. From the moment of the entry of Sly and the Hostess—an opening sure to capture the attention of an audience, particularly if Sly reels on examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences to the stage as if he has been thrown out of the alehouse—the pace does not slacken. The tinker's drunken recalcitrance is caught in just a few sentences; his intellectual limitations are well established by his references to Richard Conqueror and Saint Jeronimy and by his fondness for the catch phrases from The Spanish Tragedy. Within a few minutes the Lord and his train have come on, and their knowledgeable discussion of the hounds, in technically correct language—but in only fourteen lines—has made the necessary contrast with the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences peasant and write my essay australia nankai university (into) has also added to the already convincing details of life in a ‘real’ countryside. Writing a analytical essay American Heritage School! The plan to deceive Sly is outlined in the firmest of language—noticeable particularly are the precise active verbs, ‘take him up’, ‘carry him’, ‘hang it round’, ‘balm his foul head’, and so on—and the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences audience is eager to see what will happen. Example english essay writing Marian Catholic High School! Not many plays have openings as competent, theatrically, as this: it is, albeit in a completely different tone, comparable with the magnificent beginning of the much later Othello. The entry of the players provides further variety in stage ‘action’ before plans are worked out write a article taunton school both for their share in the tricking of Sly and for the share of write my essay australia nankai university (into) the page who is to be Sly's wife. The exchange about Soto makes a private joke with the audience and so helps to maintain its feeling of complicity, in however small a way. Sly is brought forward again, ‘aloft’, and the interest now is write my essay australia nankai university (into) in the psychological changes as he is faced with the new situation. The first mood, after he wakes calling ‘For God's sake, a pot of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences small ale’, is writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences the surliness, the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences truculence that has already been seen: ‘call not me “honour” nor “lordship”. Writing a review of an article Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences! I ne'er drank sack in my life 
 Ne'er ask me what raiment I'll wear 
’ and so on. Surliness is succeeded by plain anger, that he should be made a victim of what he naturally assumes to be their mockery of him: ‘What, would you make me mad? Am not I Christopher Sly 
 ?’ (and there follows the sequence of local allusions, to ‘Burton-heath’ and Marian Hacket and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Wincot, which certainly builds up ‘atmosphere’, even if Shakespeare is amusing himself at the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences same time). Then there is a period while the others talk at Sly, and he remains silent and presumably perplexed; when he does speak, it is to announce his decision to make the the best essay writing services princeton academy best of it and enjoy both the small ale (he is still, of course, continually giving himself away) and the company of his ‘lady’. As Hazlitt delightedly—and delightfully—put it, ‘we have a great predilection’ for him. 3. Detailed comment would be superfluous on examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Sly's guarded dialogue with the write a article taunton school servants, or his blunder over the aristocratic way to address a wife (‘“Al'ce madam”, or “Joan madam”? 
 Madam wife, they say 
’) or his willingness to watch the comedy to be played before him, though he is the best essay writing services princeton academy none too sure what a comedy is. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! There is, however, some need for comment on the search for ‘meaning’ in the Sly section, and on its dramatic function. Whereas once there would have been general agreement with F. A. Marshall's opinion that The Taming of the Shrew ‘is the one of Shakespeare's plays most devoid of serious interest, not excepting the Comedy of example english essay writing marian catholic high school Errors ', 4 it has become orthodoxy to claim to find in the Induction the same ‘theme’ as is to be found in both the Bianca and the Katherine-Petruchio plots of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the main play and to take it for granted that identity of theme is a merit and ‘justifies’ the introduction of Sly. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! Such a claim is example english essay writing marian catholic high school seen in its extreme form in the statement that the three segments of the play ‘are all linked in idea because all contain discussion of the relations of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the sexes in marriage’. 5 So do Othello, and Hamlet, and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Macbeth, and even King Lear. The situation is not saved by the statements that The Shrew deals with ‘different ways of wooing and holding a wife’ and portrays ‘different kinds of wives and husbands. The Shrew becomes thereby a drama with more social and intellectual substance than The Comedy of Errors, but in presenting shrewishness and preaching morality it resembles that play.’ 6 What The Shrew has to say about wooing a wife can be—and in the play itself is—put in a few sentences; and if one were to read the comedy—or The Comedy of Errors or for that matter any early Shakespearian comedy—for its ‘social and intellectual substance’ or to see what it preaches, then—if Dr Johnson's famous phrase about reading the novels of Samuel Richardson for the story may be adapted—‘your impatience would be so much fretted that you would hang yourself’. If, as Meredith said in his Essay on examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Comedy, the test of true comedy is that it should awaken thoughtful laughter, probably The Taming of the Shrew qualifies—but only just. It is also debatable whether discussion is much advanced by the more widely held theories that the Induction, the Bianca story, and the taming form a unified play because each deals with ‘assumptions about identity’ and ‘assumptions about personality’. 7 An alternative version is examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences that the example english essay writing marian catholic high school plots are all based on ‘supposes’—the ‘counterfeit supposes’ of 5.1.106, with the implied reference to Gascoigne's Supposes, the source of the Bianca plot. 8 Such theories seem to derive from D. A. Stauffer's suggestion that the write my essay australia nankai university (into) play demonstrates that people can become—or, indeed, are—what others think they are or treat them as being. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! Sly is compared with Katherine: ‘there is something deeper than humor, however, in Petruchio's calling Katherine affable, modest, and mild: in the outcome, thinking makes it so’. 9 Is it too late in the day to insist that it is not ‘thinking’ that makes it so—neither Petruchio's nor Katherine's—and that Sly does not become what others pretend him to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences be? The terms used in all these interpretations are far too wide: the sense in which Sly (for the minute) ‘assumes a new personality’ is quite different from the sense in which Kate is thought to assume one. Does she in fact ever assume one? Perhaps she merely learns that in certain circumstances certain kinds of behaviour do not work. Bianca, of course, does not assume a new personality at all: Lucentio finally sees her in her true colours, as the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences audience, if it has any acuity or theatrical experience, will have predicted from the first scene in which she appears. Assumptions about identity and assumptions about personality may be wildly different things. And it is simply not true that ‘Sly's story is in effect “finished” when, like Kate, he has been persuaded to accept a new personality’. 10 He remains in the play after that, to watch a comedy—and not only to watch it but also to write a article taunton school comment on it: ‘'Tis a very excellent piece of work, madam lady: would 'twere done!’—and Sly's attitude to the play within the play is crucial to the attitude to it of the audience in the ‘real’ theatre. The Sly Induction does not so much announce the theme of the enclosed stories as establish their tone. There are many reasons for telling a story indirectly or putting it within a framework—as, for example, a play can be enclosed within a play. Sometimes, as in Defoe, the main tale is wrapped up in discussion about the narrator, and the author's knowledge of the veracity of the narrator and write a article taunton school so on, as a kind of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences camouflage, with the aim of causing a reader to quibble, if at all, about what does not matter so that the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences main story will remain unchallenged. Write my essay australia Nankai University (INTO)! It is a method of making the enclosed story more realistic, more credible. Something similar, although far more sophisticated, is seen in the novels of, say, Joseph Conrad; if Conrad tells us about Marlow who helps with others to tell us about Lord Jim (or Kurtz, in writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences Heart of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Darkness ), it is, partly, that we may believe more readily in the write my essay australia nankai university (into) ‘truth’ of the story and also that attention may be given to the analysis of the complex moral issues that the story raises: Marlow's opinion, among others, is accepted, rejected or modified by the reader only because he for the minute accepts the ‘reality’ of both Marlow and Jim. The moral or intellectual debate in a sense presupposes the reality of criticle thinking williston northampton school the characters. Similarly, in a less complex and indeed unsophisticated use of the technique, a film or play will start with an ‘I remember’ followed by a dramatization of what is write a article taunton school remembered—the aim again being greater conviction. More often, however, the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences ‘enclosing’ technique works in exactly the opposite way. If in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences a film the characters go to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences see a film, the film they see is quite remote: it is at one further move from the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences ‘reality’ of the best essay writing services princeton academy the audience in the ‘real’ cinema. Similarly if a play on a small scale is put within a play, what happens in the enclosed play is writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences not ‘believed’ at all. Write my essay australia Nankai University (INTO)! Examples would be ‘The Mousetrap’ in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Hamlet and ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’ in writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences A Midsummer Night's Dream —both of which, of course, are further ‘distanced’ by other methods and notably by a deliberately artificial and old fashioned style. Since, however, these are short and in some ways special, it may be better to look for a parallel to the technique of The Shrew in a play in which the enclosed story is the longer and the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences enclosing story apparently no more than a way of the best essay writing services princeton academy introducing it. Just such a play is George Peele's The Old Wives Tale, the exact date of which is uncertain but which undoubtedly belongs within a few years of The Shrew. In Peele's play as in Shakespeare's the audience is introduced in the Induction to realistically drawn rustics who are contrasted with more aristocratic and intellectual types; and Peele's delightfully down-to-earth Old Wife, Madge, begins to tell a typical old wife's tale which is then, as it were, acted out for her by the players, with all the inconsecutiveness and the crossed lines of the story as it would be if she told it. And, of course, we do not ‘believe’ a word of write a article taunton school it, and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences have been told not to believe it—and enjoy it the more. Writing a review of an article Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences! The Taming of the Shrew is in some ways very similar: the enclosed story is not told by an uninformed and unimaginative rustic but it is examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences put on to amuse one; we ‘believe’ in Sly but do not really believe in Lucentio, or Bianca—or Petruchio. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! The phenomenon of theatrical illusion is itself being laughed at; and the play within the play makes Sly drowsy and probably soon sends him to sleep. Are we to let that play ‘preach morality’ to us or look in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences it for example english essay writing marian catholic high school, ‘social and intellectual substance’? The drunken tinker may be believed in as one believes in any realistically presented character; but we cannot ‘believe’ in something that is not even mildly interesting to him. The play within the play has been presented only examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences, after all the preliminaries have encouraged us to take it as a farce (meaning by that not slapstick, but a broader kind of comedy not involving ‘engagement’ with the write a article taunton school characters). We have been warned. Why, then, having begun the Induction, might Shakespeare have decided not to continue with it to the end; or—what is for this purpose much the same question—if he did at first continue with it, in a form of which A Shrew gives us some idea, albeit inadequate, why might he have changed his mind and decided to cut it short? There are, in the first place, some purely practical, theatrical, considerations that may have weighed with him. It has been suggested, for example, that there was a staging problem because the presence of example english essay writing marian catholic high school Sly and the ‘presenters’ ‘aloft’ made the use of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the ‘upper stage’ for another purpose difficult; and the raised acting area does seem to example english essay writing marian catholic high school be needed again in 5.1 when, as F1 has it, the the best essay writing services princeton academy ‘ Pedant lookes out of the window ’ (l. 2397). 11 There may be something in this, although not enough is examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences certain about the ‘upper stage’ in Elizabethan theatres for the argument to carry full conviction; it was not necessarily impossible to keep Sly's party well away from the ‘window’ required for the Pedant. (Conceivably the form of the Induction in criticle thinking williston northampton school A Shrew, which has Sly on the main stage throughout, represents some intermediate, experimental version that tried to get over the problem of the differing uses of the area ‘aloft’; alternatively, 
 the compilers of A Shrew—if they were thinking that the text they compiled might be acted by, for example, touring companies—may have had in mind the limitations of the best essay writing services princeton academy stages and theatres other than those for which the Shakespeare play was written.) The staging would not seem to writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences have been so difficult as to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences make necessary by itself the decision not to continue the Sly story after Act I Scene I. Criticle thinking Williston Northampton School! A greater difficulty was, perhaps, casting, although again it cannot be said that an examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Elizabethan company could not have coped with the problems of the full framework (including in that phrase both the carrying through of Sly's comments as in A Shrew and the alternative possibility of leaving him and others, even though they remain silent, in view of the audience throughout). If the writing a analytical essay american heritage school actors of Sly, the Lord, and the Page in the Induction are not available to play other roles, then The Taming of the Shrew requires a cast of sixteen to play named parts (plus a few odd servants), of whom at least four would be boys (the Page, Kate, Bianca, the Widow)—five if a boy played Biondello; and it may have been necessary—if the company could not rise to this number—to introduce some doubling, not merely by ending the Sly story when it does end in the Folio text but also by getting him and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences his fellow presenters off the the best essay writing services princeton academy stage altogether. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! 12 One caveat may be entered: it has perhaps been too readily assumed that because the Lord remains on the stage with Sly in A Shrew, he must remain with Sly, if Sly remains, in The Shrew. Writing a analytical essay American Heritage School! This is not so. The Lord could leave the Induction for the last time at 2.114 and be available for Vincentio or any other role thereafter, unless he is made to be the ‘Messenger’ of Induction 2.125.1 (itself involving an almost impossibly rapid change of costume) and also the ‘1. Man. ’ who is one of the ‘Presenters’ still watching the play at the end of 1.1. 13 If these two very minor roles are given to write a article taunton school a minor actor or hired man, then only Sly and the boy-Page-‘wife’ are being ‘wasted’ if they are kept on stage; but certainly if they are removed from the view of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the audience, ‘Sly’ can play the Pedant later, and the boy can play the Widow in the final scene. 14 (Perhaps it should be added—in view of some rather wild theorizing about Sly's ‘dream’—that the actor playing Sly cannot conceivably play Petruchio if the Folio text is examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences adhered to; Sly must ‘sit and marke’, at least for a while, and the very first thing he is required to mark is the entrance of Petruchio. 15 ) William Ringler's analysis of The Two Gentlemen of Verona, however, has suggested that Shakespeare as a young dramatist did not always use his actors economically, and has shown that he probably could count on the best essay writing services princeton academy twelve adult actors and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences four boys if he really needed them. It may therefore be wiser to look beyond the casting, as well as the stage, for explanations of the dramatist's final preference for the ‘incomplete’ framework and to consider the possibility that the final form of the play is in fact the better for aesthetic reasons. If what has been argued earlier in this Introduction is correct, the main purpose of the Induction was to criticle thinking williston northampton school set the tone for the play-within-the-play—in particular, to present the story of Kate and her sister as a none-too-serious comedy put on to divert a drunken tinker. The artificial style of the beginning of 1.1 is perhaps further indication that we are not expected to become too involved in the Lucentio—Bianca—disguises plot; we are told that it more or less put Sly to sleep; and only then are we invited to watch also Petruchio's campaign to tame the shrew. As that tale goes on and especially when Kate is introduced, it gradually changes key and it does become, for examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences, a while, more realistic and convincing (and an attempt will be made later to justify this claim); but it never for long loses its basically farcical character, and it ends, perfectly logically for a farce, with the shrew not only tamed but also prepared to instruct the untamed wives on the social desirability of tameness. That last scene has been taken literally by, for example, G. I. Duthie, who wrote that ‘What Shakespeare emphasizes here is the foolishness of trying to destroy order’. 16 He can take such a view, however, only because for him the Induction is finally irrelevant (indeed, in this discussion he does not so much as mention its existence); for him, all the hints about the nature of theatrical illusion have been in vain; because Kate is straightfaced, he believes what she has said. Others, holding that ‘the best in this kind are but shadows’, as Shakespeare was to put it later, and remembering that this particular shadow was for the amusement of a shadow, will have their doubts. The play as it stands is, in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences modern jargon, ‘open-ended’—and it is made not more ‘open’ but less so by having Sly, in a final scene, convinced that he now knows how to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences tame a shrew and by having Sly's friend not so sure. The reintroduction of the presenters would also, as has been suggested by several modern critics, run the write my essay australia nankai university (into) risk of anticlimax and, one might add, of seeming to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences gild the example english essay writing marian catholic high school lily. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! One does not improve a farce by ending it with the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences reminder that it may have been only a farce; far better to let the audience make that judgement, if it wishes to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences make it. Perhaps Shakespeare first tried the play with the full Sly framework, perhaps he did not; but at least one can say that he seems to have had very good reasons for the best essay writing services princeton academy, his apparent decision to leave it ‘incomplete’ as it is criticle thinking williston northampton school now in the approved text and (probably) to get Sly out of view of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the audience early in the play and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences let them forget him—until perhaps they have left the theatre and have time to wonder what happened to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences him and criticle thinking williston northampton school even, perhaps, what has happened to them. THE BIANCA SUBPLOT AND ‘SUPPOSES’ At least there is no dispute about the main source for the part of The Taming of the Shrew that deals with Bianca and her suitors. Shakespeare even alludes to it, and paraphrases it, when he has Lucentio reveal his identity, with the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences words: The source was George Gascoigne's Supposes. Its title-page describes it as ‘a Comedie written in the Italian tongue by Ariosto Englished by George Gascoygne of Grayes Inne Esquire, and there presented 1566’ (and there is an apparent record of a later private performance at Oxford, in Trinity College, in January 1582 18 ). examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! Gascoigne was translating Ariosto's I Suppositi in the original prose version in which it was acted at criticle thinking williston northampton school Ferrara in 1509 and write my essay australia nankai university (into) at the Vatican in 1519 (although he may have known also Ariosto's rewriting of it in verse) and his translation is thought to be the first English drama in prose (it anticipates Lyly by nearly twenty years). Gascoigne's play was easily available to Shakespeare, particularly in the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences collections The Posies of example english essay writing marian catholic high school G. Gascoigne (1575) 19 and The Whole Woorkes of G. Gascoigne (1587). In the Ariosto-Gascoigne story, Erostrato [Shakespeare's Lucentio], after falling in love at first sight, has enjoyed for some time a secret liaison with Polynesta [Shakespeare's Bianca], daughter of Damon [Baptista]. Writing a review of an article Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences! Erostrato is examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences able to arrange meetings because in disguise he has been employed by Damon as a servant, Dulipo, while Erostrato's real servant Dulipo [Tranio] pretends to be the writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences master Erostrato. The feigned Erostrato pretends to woo the girl, as a way of writing a analytical essay american heritage school frustrating a rival suitor, the aged Cleander [Gremio]. These two try to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences outbid each other with offers of criticle thinking williston northampton school lavish dowries; and to support his claim Erostrato persuades a travelling stranger [the Pedant] to impersonate his real father Philogano [Vincentio]. Erostrato arranges this both by pretending that because of a ducal decision it is criticle thinking williston northampton school dangerous for a Sienese to be found in Ferrara and by offering protection if the stranger will impersonate the father. Matters come to a head when Polynesta is found to write a article taunton school be pregnant (Shakespeare altered this, of course: he obviously wanted for his second female character one who to appearance had all the marks of the romantic heroine). Dulipo is examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences put into a dungeon (too ‘serious’ a fate for Shakespeare's kind of comedy); from Sicily 20 arrives ‘the right Philogano the right father of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the right Erostrato’, to find both that Dulipo is impersonating Erostrato and that a stranger is impersonating Erostrato's father, namely himself; but finally all is writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences solved, and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences true identities revealed, and Cleander [Gremio] even discovers that Dulipo is the son he lost long ago after the battle of Otranto (and Shakespeare chose to avoid that improbability, which adds nothing of import to the write a article taunton school story). For one character who looms large in the source but hardly affects the action—the typical parasite of classical comedy, Pasiphilo—Shakespeare found no place at examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences all; not did his Bianca (since she was not pregnant) need a confidant-nurse. His main addition, which perhaps he saw as an alternative to these superfluous characters, was to complicate the action by examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences, giving Bianca a third suitor, Hortensio; and then—on second thoughts, if the argument of the earlier part of this Introduction is correct—he complicated it further by examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences, having Hortensio assume the disguise of Litio to compete with Erostrato/Lucentio in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences disguise as Cambio. In short, he added still more ‘supposes’ to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences those of which Gascoigne already thought so highly that he put notes in the margin pointing them out lest the reader should miss any. 21. Gascoigne, as part of a whole series of quibbles on his title, explained in his ‘Prologue or Argument’: ‘But understand, this our Suppose is nothing else but a mystaking or imagination of one thing for an other. For you shall see the master supposed for the write my essay australia nankai university (into) servant, the servant for the master: the freeman for a slave, and the bondslave for a freeman: the stranger for writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences, a well knowen friend, and the familiar for a stranger.’ His audience is kept amused by the misconceptions of the characters—as in the Plautine comedies of which Supposes is writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences a direct descendant 22 —and is not invited (unless it be by the strong suspicion of irony in the Prologue and the marginal notes) to wonder if it has misconceptions of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences its own. The interest, in short, is not in characterization but in plot, the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences audience watching to see what happens next and how the knots are untied. The Bianca section of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Shakespeare's play, for the most part, is no different. The best essay writing services Princeton Academy! 23 It is the kind of writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences comedy that he attempted also in The Comedy of Errors, with its two pairs of identical twins (this time beginning from Plautus' Mostellaria ); he attempted it again—albeit in a very different tone—in the parts of A Midsummer Night's Dream that follow from the anointing of the wrong lover's eyes with the juice of the magic flower, so that Demetrius and Lysander are temporarily infatuated with the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences wrong women. Write a article Taunton School! Being Shakespeare, he carried it off. A reader's head sometimes spins as he tries to remember whether Lucentio is Cambio or Litio and momentarily confuses the names of Grumio and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Gremio—but in the theatre all is clear, and the pace of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the action is well maintained. Indeed it is example english essay writing marian catholic high school increased towards the end and particularly in 5.1, where one seeming disaster after another falls on the bewildered Vincentio: he himself is being impersonated by a complete stranger; his son Lucentio's servant Biondello claims never to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences have seen him before; the other servant Tranio, whom he brought up in examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences his own house, claims to be Lucentio; and for all this he, Vincentio, is threatened with imprisonment, until the problem is solved by Biondello's unfortunate entrance (unfortunate for Biondello) with Lucentio and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences Bianca, and his prompt exit with Tranio and the false father ‘as fast as may be’. It is examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences all very fast indeed. Interestingly, it is in this scene that Shakespeare seems to have worked most closely from Gascoigne. He even borrows such a small detail as having the real father knock in vain at the door for admittance to his own son's dwelling and be greeted by a stranger looking out of the window (although in Supposes the stranger is a servant and not the feigned father). There are also verbal reminiscences, albeit of write a article taunton school commonplace phrases. examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences! One example is Philogano's ‘What hast thou done with my son villain?’; Vincentio's ‘Tell me, thou villain, where is my son 
 ?’ with the writing a review of an article wittenborg university of applied sciences same expressed fear that the son has been murdered by his former servant. Another is Gascoigne's Philogano to his own servant: ‘Do you not know me?’ ‘As farre as I remember Sir, I never saw you before’; Shakespeare's Vincentio: ‘What, have you forgot me?’ ‘Forgot you? No, sir. I could not forget you, for I never saw you before in all my life.’ This last example, with its improvement on Gascoigne in its colloquial tone and the balance of its calculated repetitions, is sufficient warning against equating Shakespeare with his sources. It is also noticeable how he avoids the traps into which others fall: he will not slow up the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences scene just discussed, for instance, or falsify its tone, by introducing passages of self-pity amounting to attempted pathos, such as ‘Alas, who shall relieve my miserable estate? to whom shall I complaine? 
 Alas, you might have some compassion of mine age 
’. Nevertheless it remains true that it is the Gascoigne kind of comedy that he is writing in the Bianca scenes; and (although a few caveats to this judgement will be entered later, in the general discussion of the style) he does not attempt to alter that kind by elevating or enriching the language. It would not have been an improvement for criticle thinking williston northampton school, Bianca to examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences speak or be described in genuinely romantic terms; on the contrary, she must be seen, at first, as nothing but the conventional heroine sought by the hero of examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences fiction, and in this capacity she will be contrasted with another type of woman, at first much less attractive, her spirited ‘real-life’ sister Kate. Shakespeare is not content, however, to write my essay australia nankai university (into) leave it at that. The best essay writing services Princeton Academy! He does not merely contrast one sister with another: he uses the examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences younger as part of the explanation of the acquired shrewishness of the best essay writing services princeton academy the elder, and so—for better or worse—also uses Bianca in a. (The entire section is 12662 words.) Start your 48-hour free trial to the best essay writing services princeton academy unlock this resource and examples of academic writing essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences thousands more.