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peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School

. During the 16th century, Protestantism emerged as a new sect of Christianity. This process was not calm or peaceful in the slightest. peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School! Protestant leaders like Martin Luther and how to write an essay in english queen ethelburga’s college, John Calvin fiercely attacked and denied traditional Catholic beliefs, causing much controversy and debate upon religion. Many regions of Europe as a whole were converted to teaching how to write an essay glenalmond college Protestantism, and many more Protestants emerged in areas where Catholicism remained the state religion. The Catholic faith became less and less appealing to people as the abuses of the clergy were now publicly addressed by reformers and a new, personal approach to religion was offered in Protestantism. In addition, rulers favored Protestantism as a state religion because it meant that no power needed to be shared with the Pope. The church thus needed a response to the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, Protestant Reformation , as it was going against how to write a good compare contrast essay northfield mount hermon everything they stood for. This movement against the Protestant Reformation is commonly referred to as the “Catholic Reformation ”. This movement was directly operated through the Council of how to write an essay in english queen ethelburga’s college Trent, a council of high cardinals that met from 1645 to 1663. The Council of Trent was able to defend the Catholic faith against the Protestant Reformation by peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, reaffirming Catholic beliefs and addressing the abuses of the church. In addition, separate institutions and religious orders like the Index of. . UNIT II: The Reformation Chapter 16 The Reformation The Reformation & Daily Life The Wars of Religion PART I: SHORT ANSWERS: Answer the following questions in complete paragraph form. There must be a comprehensive topic sentence and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, a beginning, middle and end to the paragraph. Be specific and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, use examples where appropriate. (5-7 sentences is a general guideline) Why did the Reformation begin in Germany and not in France, Italy, England or Spain? The Reformation began in Germany because Germany lacked The political unity to enforce national religious reforms and also thats where Martin Luther lived at the time. Without any unification with a religious order and as resentment of clerical immunities abuses spread, all of this provided a solid foundation for Luther’s reform. All of the other countries were busy with trying to bring back catholicism to Europe. So since Germany wasn't involved with these other countries it served as the perfect country to start a reform. What were the political considerations impelling Henry VIII to create the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, Anglican Church? Henry VIII was forced to create the Anglican Church because all he wanted was a son so that the how to write a good scholarship application essay the fessenden school, son could rule after him. After marrying his deeds brother wife Catherine of Aragon and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, not having a son, he declared that the whole thing was cursed since it was his brothers wife, but the church did not give the required papal. . Catholic church. This conflict is peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, called the Protestant Reformation , and the Catholic response to it is called the Counter- Reformation . The Reformation movement begins in 1517 when a German Augustinian friar named Martin Luther posts a list of grievances, called the Ninety-Five Theses, against the Roman Catholic Church. As the spirit of reform spreads other leaders appear: Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland, French-born John Calvin who settles in Geneva, and John Knox who carries Calvin's teachings to Scotland. In the how to write essays fast hanze university of applied sciences, Roman church a series of peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School powerful popes including Leo X and Paul III will respond to peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School reform demands in various ways. Mendicant orders such as the Jesuits are formed to reinforce Catholic doctrine, and the Church will continue to peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School be supported by t he major European monarchies. Ultimately, the Reformation creates a north-south split in Europe. In general the northern countries become Protestant while the south remains Catholic. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Reformation and Art Protestant reformers reject the use of visual arts in the church. A wave of iconoclasm sweeps through the north. Stained glass windows are broken, images of the saints are destroyed, and pipe organs are removed from churches. The Catholic churches respond to this iconoclasm with an exuberant style of art and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, architecture. . Reformation is the religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th century. How to write essays fast Hanze University of Applied Sciences! It arose from objections to how to write a good compare contrast essay northfield mount hermon doctrines and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, practices in the medieval church, loss of papal authority and credibility as well as other societal, political and economical issues of the time. This revolution had a major impact on Europe and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, it gave way to short term and long-term consequences, which still can be seen today. Clear reasoning Brookes Shawnigan Lake! There were many causes of Reformation , some go as far back as the fourteenth century. One of the how to write essays fast hanze university of applied sciences, main ones was that the papal authority and credibility were damaged. This was done through, Avignon papacy, - a time where the headquarters of the Holy See had to be moved from Rome to Avignon, it brought uncertainty to the people, as they did not trust the teaching how to write an essay glenalmond college, Pope, and believed the teaching how to write an essay glenalmond college, Pope favoured the French. Following this, the Great Western Schism also contributed to the loss of papal authority as it split Christian Europe into hostile camps, because three different men were claiming to be the true Pope, each having some support from different kings and princes of peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School Europe. Clear reasoning Brookes Shawnigan Lake! Finally, the corruption of the Renaissance papacy, such as that of Alexander VI (who did not keep the celibacy vow) resulted in loss of papal credibility. As the Holy See was not as powerful anymore, it was suffering from attacks on the papacy. Many felt that the Pope and his Bishops had developed into an abusive feudal monarchy. They were not happy that the Church was. . 4. What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the 16th century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation ? The demand to reform the Roman Catholic Church stretched on how to write an essay in english queen ethelburga’s college, for ages. Many people, such as Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Jan Hus criticized the church for its worldliness and believed that one didn’t need direction from the Church, but just needed to read the Bible for guidance. It was from peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School these men that Martin Luther came to the conclusion that faith alone would lead to salvation and you didn’t need to work for it. Martin Luther appealed to Pope Leo X to correct the abuses of the Church. How to write an essay in english Queen Ethelburga’s College! When that didn’t work, he rallied the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, people to follow him. His beliefs spread through German states and most of Northern Europe. In response, the Catholic Church assembled the Council of Trent, which defined the Catholic religion and reformed the abuses of the Catholic Church. The Church also established the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, Jesuits, who spread the teaching how to write an essay glenalmond college, Catholic teachings during the Lutheran Reformation . Teaching how to write an essay Glenalmond College! Finally, the Church employed many policing tactics against the Lutheran Reformation . These responses kept Catholicism a major religion in how to write an essay in english queen ethelburga’s college Europe. Although the conciliar movement was ended by Pope Pius II around the 1450s, the people during the Lutheran Reformation were calling for a general council of the church. Charles the V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and how to write an essay in english queen ethelburga’s college, King of Spain, tried to how to write a good compare contrast essay northfield mount hermon persuade the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, Pope to. . Have you aver questioned authority or superior forces than yourself? Martin Luther and John Calvin, two famous theologians deeply questioned their times authority, the Catholic Church. These two had created a new way of thinking and voicing it out, especially when it comes to religion. Questioning the clear reasoning brookes shawnigan lake, Catholic Church and the works that came with that made both of them landmark points in the world’s history but the custom essay paper writing goldsmiths university of london, question relies on why they attacked the fundamental principles of the church. How to write a good scholarship application essay The Fessenden School! The strong opposition to selling indulgences and custom essay paper writing goldsmiths university of london, that anyone could make its way to heaven if they had the right amount of money was what ignited the how to write a good scholarship application essay the fessenden school, reformation , including Martin Luther 95 theses against indulgences. Later on came John Calvin’s work against how to write a good compare contrast essay northfield mount hermon the Catholic Church including the Geneva reform and his idea of predestination, the idea that God is willing all of the events that can happen in one’s life. Teaching how to write an essay Glenalmond College! Both of these theologians had intentions of creating a truer version of the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, Christian religion and created their own form and version of custom essay paper writing goldsmiths university of london Catholicism, Calvinism and Lutheranism. How to write a good compare contrast essay Northfield Mount Hermon! Some viewed these new branches/forms of Christianity as a new way of how to write an essay in english queen ethelburga’s college interpreting the religion and some; according to Prentice Hall world history thought it would be a chance to “throw off the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, rule of both the Church and the Holy Roman Empire.” (Ellis and Esler 64) In a whole, both of how to write an essay in english queen ethelburga’s college their works were a way to challenge and how to write a good compare contrast essay northfield mount hermon, attack the Church and to voice out their ideas, which differed from. . Clear reasoning Brookes Shawnigan Lake! The Protestant Reformation Certain practices of the Catholic religion were questioned during the Reformation . The beliefs of many men created a new religion called Protestantism. peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School! During this time in history many historical events were happening that caused this reformation . Persecutions against aspects of the Catholic faith were evolved into Protestantism. Protestantism is still a large religion today throughout many parts of the world. There are many differences between Catholicism and Protestantism. Custom essay paper writing Goldsmiths University of London! Besides affecting the religions, this reformation also changed parts of the European culture. There were many things that caused the split of the Catholic faith. The movement quickly gained adherents in the German states, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland and portions of France. Support came from religious reformers, while others manipulated the movement to custom essay paper writing goldsmiths university of london gain control of valuable church property. New religions outside of Protestantism were also formed during this reformation . These religions include Zwingli, Calvinism, and the Church of England. The selling of indulgences and selling and buying of clerical offices was a major thing that upset many people. How to write a good compare contrast essay Northfield Mount Hermon! The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural even that split up Europe. The protest against the church was not entirely new. In England there had been. .  PROTESTANT REFORMATION ZWINGLI/ANABAPTIST While there were many who disagreed with the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, Catholic Church during the years of the peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, Reformation one of the more striking figures would have to be Huldrych (Ulrich) Zwingli. Huldrych was born in Wildhaus, Switzerland on 1 January 1484. Even though his family was not well off Zwingli's father, also named Huldrych, sent him to study with an uncle, Bartholomew Zwingli, who was a parish priest and eventually Dean of Wesen in 1487. 1 Zwingli progressed efficiently and quickly through his studies and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, was sent to Basle the spend time studying at the school run by Henry Wölflin at the age of 10. Moving quickly and peer reviewed scientific journals Grier School, testing his instructor's teaching knowledge he continued his education at the University of Vienna, age 14, where he studied under the humanist Conrad, Celtis. He then moved on to the university of Basle, age 18, where he spent time with Leo Jud and Conrad Pellican, future colleagues in Zurich. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1504 and his Masters in 1506.2 In the same year he achieved his Masters Zwingli became the parish priest for Glarus.3 During his educational life Zwingli met men such as Johann Meyer of Eck and Erasmus. Educated in the fashion of the Humanist thinking of the day it is said of Zwingli that, "He became a reformer because he was a Humanist, with a liking for Augustinian theology."4 Between the time he became a priest and the time he died in battle.