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The border slave states of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri remained with the Union, although they all contributed volunteers to the Confederacy. Fifty counties of western Virginia were loyal to how to write academic essays university of massachusetts lowell — umass lowell (navitas), the Union government, and in 1863 this area was constituted the separate state of West Virginia. Secession in essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester practical terms meant that about a third of the population with substantial material resources had withdrawn from how to write academic essays university of massachusetts lowell — umass lowell (navitas) what had constituted a single nation and established a separate government. The term secession had been used as early as 1776. South Carolina threatened separation when the Continental Congress sought to harvard business journal stonar school, tax all the colonies on the basis of a total population count that would include slaves. Essay writing book pdf Justin-Siena High School! Secession in this instance and throughout the essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, antebellum period came to mean the assertion of minority sectional interests against what was perceived to be a hostile or indifferent majority. Secession had been a matter of concern to some members of the Constitutional Convention that met at Philadelphia in 1787. Theoretically, secession was bound up closely with Whig thought, which claimed the right of revolution against a despotic government. Algernon Sidney, John Locke, and the British Commonwealth Men argued this theme, and it played a prominent role in the American Revolution. Any federal republic by its very nature invited challenge to central control, a danger that James Madison recognized. essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester! He sought at the convention a clause that would prohibit secession from the proposed union once the states had ratified the essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, Constitution. In debate over other points, Madison repeatedly warned that secession or “disunion” was a major concern. The Constitution as framed and finally accepted by the states divided the exercise of sovereign power between the states and the national government. By virtue of the fact that it was a legal document and in most respects enumerated the powers of the essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, central government, the division was weighted toward the states. Yet much of the charter was drawn up in general terms and was susceptible to interpretation that might vary with time and circumstance. The very thing that Madison feared took on a concrete form during the party battles of the Washington and Adams administrations. And paradoxically, Madison found himself involved with those who seemed to threaten separation. In their reaction to the arbitrary assumption of power in the Alien and Sedition Acts, Thomas Jefferson and Madison argued for state annulment of this legislation. Jefferson’s response in the Kentucky Resolution advanced the compact interpretation of the federal Constitution. Madison’s Virginia Resolution was far more moderate, but both resolutions looked to state action against mba essay writing lancing college what were deemed unconstitutional laws. The national judiciary, they felt, was packed with their opponents. Neither resolution claimed original sovereignty for the states, but both argued for a strict reading of enumerated powers. During the War of 1812, a disaffected Federalist majority in New England advanced the compact theory and essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, considered secession from the Union. As modernization began to take hold in essay writing book pdf justin-siena high school the United States, differences between the two major sections grew more pronounced: a plantation cotton culture worked by slave labor became concentrated in the South and industrial development featuring free labor in the North. How to write a summary of an academic article Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland! A wave of reform activity in Europe and the United States made the abolition or at least the essay writing on newspaper windermere school, restriction of slavery a significant goal in the free states. essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester! Since abolition struck at essay writing book pdf justin-siena high school the labor system as well as the social structure of the how to write academic essays university of massachusetts lowell — umass lowell (navitas), slave states, threats of secession punctuated the political dialogue from essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester 1819 through 1860. John C. Harvard business journal Stonar School! Calhoun, the leading spokesman of the slave states, charged frequently and eloquently that the South and essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, its way of essay writing on newspaper windermere school life were under assault from an industrializing North. Like other proponents of endangered minorities, he looked to the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions and their assertion of the federal compact for the basis of his defense. He argued that a state or a group of states could nullify a federal law that was felt to be against a particular interest. But Calhoun made a fundamental extension of the Jeffersonian concept of states’ rights and claimed original undivided sovereignty for the people acting through the essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, states. Although always seeking an accommodation for the South and essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, its slave plantation system within the Union, Calhoun had hoped that nullification was a proper, constitutional alternative to disunion. But he eventually invoked secession with particular vehemence after the territorial acquisitions of the Mexican War and the formation of the write essay online the university of westminster, Free-Soil party in essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester 1848. Nationalists like John Marshall, Joseph Story, and essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, Daniel Webster countered the Calhoun argument. They declared that the how to write academic essays university of massachusetts lowell — umass lowell (navitas), Constitution operated directly through the states on the people, not upon the states as corporate bodies, and essay writing book pdf justin-siena high school, their view gained wide acceptance in essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester the free states. Calhoun was instrumental in fostering southern unity on a sectional basis and in formulating the call for a convention of delegates from the slave states to be held at Nashville, Tennessee, in 1850. There is essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester little doubt that had he lived, Calhoun would have been a formidable force for harvard business journal stonar school, secession as the ultimate weapon. His death and the working out of a compromise that strengthened moderate opinion in both sections kept the secessionist element at bay temporarily. But the territorial issue flared up again, this time with renewed fury over the essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, question of whether Kansas should enter the Union as a free or slave state. By now antislavery sentiment had grown significantly in the free states. And opinion leaders in the slave states drew closer together in defense against what they saw as an impending attack on their institutions. The Kansas question created the Republican party, a frankly sectional political organization, and it nominated John C. FrГ©mont for write essay online the university of westminster, president on a Free-Soil platform in how to write academic essays university of massachusetts lowell — umass lowell (navitas) 1856. Although the Democrats, still functioning along national lines, managed to elect James Buchanan president by a slim margin, the slave states threatened secession if the Republicans should win the essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, election in 1860. The South was committed to an agrarian way of life. essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester! It was a land where profitable and efficient plantations worked by slave labor produced cotton for the world market. essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester! It was also a land where a majority of its white population was made up of subsistence farmers who lived isolated lives on the edge of poverty and whose literacy rates were low compared with those in the more densely populated North. The South nevertheless was beginning to industrialize, a factor that added to essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, the social tensions surfacing during the 1850s between the haves–plantation owners and write essay online the university of westminster, professional groups in the few urban centers–and the have-nots–an increasingly restive yeoman or small-farmer group. But the issue of black servitude provided cohesion for the white bloc and contributed greatly to a patriarchal system wherein the masses of the whites still looked to a planter-professional elite for political and essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, social guidance. Although the northern masses might also defer to write essay online the university of westminster, the opinions of the powerful and living conditions among the urban poor were precarious, educational levels were far higher than in the South. The ethic of free capital and essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, free labor was deeply ingrained in the cities and in farm communities as well. It was this ethic that formed the ideological basis for a broad antislavery movement. Southern leaders were concerned over internal stresses in write essay online the university of westminster their society and were increasingly aware of the moral and social repugnance the write essay online the university of westminster, slave system engendered not only in the North but also in essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester Western Europe. Southern leadership, though surely not unified in its response to a political victory of antislavery forces in essay writing on newspaper windermere school 1860, began as early as 1858 to prepare its section for separation from the Union. Even though the Republican platform of 1860 disavowed any move that would interfere with slavery where the custom and the essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester, law of a given state upheld it, many of the more extreme opinion makers in the South promoted the idea that a Republican victory meant eventual emancipation and social and political equality for their black population. So inflamed were the voters in South Carolina that before the election of Lincoln, they had chosen a convention that was committed to secession on news of harvard business journal stonar school a Republican victory. The situation of other states in the Deep South was more complicated. Elections were held promptly, but the results showed considerable division on secession. Three factions emerged: those for immediate secession, those who sought delay until the policy of the new administration toward the slave states became clear, and those who believed they could bargain with the new administration. All these groups, however, were united in support of the doctrine of secession. With this idea as a basic commitment, the better organized immediate secessionists were able to prevail. The close connection between the right to revolution and separation from how to write a summary of an academic article cesar ritz сolleges switzerland the governing power in the spirit of 1776 was an early theme in the provisional Confederacy. To be sure, the revolution was posited as a peaceful one. Separation from a Union perceived to be under the control of a tyrannical power that would destroy southern institutions was the objective. Confederate leaders at this early date thought that the North would not fight to preserve the Union. But the provisional government nevertheless began purchasing arms and munitions, and seceded states started to equip and train their militias. State and Confederate government authorities seized federal forts, arsenals, and other national property within their jurisdiction. When Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, federal troops held only Fort Sumter in write essay online the university of westminster Charleston Harbor, Fort Pickens off the Florida coast, and one or two other outposts in the South. Concerned about the loyalty of the border states of how to write a summary of an academic article cesar ritz сolleges switzerland Virginia, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky, the new administration went so far as to offer the slave states an amendment to the Constitution that would guarantee slavery where it legally existed. essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester! Lincoln himself in his inaugural address pledged only to hold federal property that was in the possession of the Union on March 4, 1861. The provisional Confederacy likewise sought vigorously to stimulate secession sentiment in the border states. Had all the border slave states thrown in their lot with one or the write essay online the university of westminster, other government, there might not have been a war, or conversely, separation might well have become an accomplished fact. As it was, however, the prompt action of the Lincoln administration after the bombardment and harvard business journal stonar school, surrender of essay creative writing Abbey College Manchester Fort Sumter secured Maryland and how to write a summary of an academic article cesar ritz сolleges switzerland, Delaware for the Union. Kentucky proclaimed its neutrality but eventually remained loyal to the Union. Essay writing on newspaper Windermere School! Missouri, too, though a major battleground for the contending forces, contributed most of how to write a summary of an academic article cesar ritz сolleges switzerland its resources in men and matГ©riel to the Union. Once the war was joined, waves of patriotic sentiment swept over essay writing on newspaper windermere school North and South. Vocal political opposition would exist on both sides, but it was never strong enough to overthrow either government. Secession as revolution, an early theme in southern rhetoric, was not emphasized after the how to write academic essays university of massachusetts lowell — umass lowell (navitas), formation of the Confederacy. Rather, Jefferson’s compact theory was enshrined in its Constitution. A nation could not have been formed, nor a war fought, if the states were wholly independent of essay writing on newspaper windermere school any central authority. Behind it all, of course, was the unity of a minority geographical section defending a distinct set of institutions that were thought to be under attack. The original federal Union that shared the exercise of essay writing book pdf justin-siena high school power with the states strengthened the concept of secession. It also supplied a pretext for southern leaders to seize the initiative and how to write academic essays university of massachusetts lowell — umass lowell (navitas), form a separate nation. The Reader’s Companion to American History. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors. Copyright В© 1991 by essay writing on newspaper windermere school, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.