how to write time in an essay University of Utah how to write quality articles Windermere School writing your college essay St. Louis University (INTO) steps on how to write an article Sandy Spring Friends School how to write a comparison contrast essay Kent School essay writing expert King’s Ely website that write essays for you St. George’s School writing article summary Lord Wandsworth College elsevier review University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) cheap essay writing services Thompson Rivers University how to write a college compare and contrast essay Concord College writing a compare and contrast essay Brooke House College how to write introduction in essay City, University of London contoh critical review jurnal Glenalmond College writing comparative essay Limkokwing University how to write an article for a blog Mercersburg Academy

Go to Bing homepage
Go to Bing homepage

We did not find any results for mit coursework Bournemouth University.

Search tips:

  • Ensure words are spelled correctly.
  • Try less specific keywords.
  • Try rephrasing keywords or using synonyms.
  • Make your queries as concise as possible.
Feedback

mit coursework Bournemouth University

In the face of Monopsony employers, Trades Unions can increase wages and increase employment. Traditionally, monopsonies occur when there is only firm in a town or type of employment. mit coursework Bournemouth University! However, in modern economies, many employers have a degree of monopsony power - related to difficulties of moving between jobs. From the late 1890s to 1980s, the UK saw a growth in trade union membership. This was also a period of falling inequality and a reduction in relative poverty. Since trade union membership peaked in the early 1980s, this trend of reduced inequality has been reversed and inequality has increased. It is also argued that if unions are very powerful and disruptive, it can discourage firms from investing and mit coursework Bournemouth University creating employment in the jobs. If firms fear frequent strikes and a non-cooperative union, they may prefer to invest in another country with better labour relations. mit coursework Bournemouth University! For example, in the 1970s, the UK experienced widespread industrial unrest and this is mit coursework Bournemouth University cited as a factor behind the UK's relative decline. Economic growth can help various macroeconomic objectives. Reduction in mit coursework Bournemouth University, poverty . Increased national output means households can enjoy more goods and services. For countries with significant levels of poverty, economic growth can enable vastly improved living standards. Harvardbusinessreview University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston! For example, in the nineteenth century, absolute poverty was widespread in Europe, a century of economic growth has lifted nearly everyone out of this state of poverty. Economic growth is mit coursework Bournemouth University particularly important in developing economies. Reduced Unemployment . A stagnant economy leads to higher rates of unemployment and the consequent social misery. Economic growth leads to higher demand and introduction of essay writing trinity college school firms are likely to increase employment. Define essay writing St. Michael's School! Improved public services . mit coursework Bournemouth University! Higher economic growth leads to harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston higher tax revenues (even with tax rates staying the same). With higher growth, incomes and profit, the government will receive more income tax, corporation tax and expenditure taxes. The government can then spend more on public services. Reduced debt to GDP ratios . Economic growth helps reduce debt to mit coursework Bournemouth University GDP ratios. In the 1950s, the UK had a national debt of over 200% of GDP. Despite very few years of budget surplus, economic growth enabled a reduction in the level of debt to GDP. Countries with positive rates of focus on writing paragraphs and essays bosworth independent college economic growth will create a virtuous cycle Economic growth will encourage inward investment as firms seek to benefit from essay writing argumentative university of the pacific, rising demand Higher growth leads to improved tax revenues which can be spent on long-term public sector works, such as improved transport and communication. This helps long-term growth. Confidence to essay writing argumentative university of the pacific invest. mit coursework Bournemouth University! Higher growth encourages firms to introduction of essay writing trinity college school take risks - innovate and invest in how to write an article for a blog mercersburg academy, future products and productive capacity. Inequality and introduction of essay writing trinity college school distribution . Economic growth doesn't necessarily reduce relative poverty, it depends on the distribution of incomes. Economic growth could bypass the poorest in society. For example in the 1980s, the Gini coefficient rose sharply - the richest 1% gained dis proportionality more. Negative externalities . Economic growth can cause negative externalities such as pollution, higher crime rates and congestion which actually reduce living standards. For example, China has experienced very rapid economic growth but is now experience very serious levels of air pollution in major cities. Economic growth may conflict with the environment . e.g. increased carbon production is article article les roches international school of hotel management leading to global warming. Economic growth may bring benefits in the short-term, but costs in the long-term. It depends on what is produced . Define essay writing St. Michael's School! The Soviet Union has fantastic rates of economic growth, but, often through producing a lot of steel and pig iron that was not actually very useful. Economic growth can be unsustainable . If growth is too rapid, it will cause inflation, current account deficit and can lead to boom and bust. Focus on writing paragraphs and essays Bosworth Independent College! Does happiness actually increase? Theories of mit coursework Bournemouth University hedonistic relativism suggest (beyond a certain level) increasing output has no effect on changing life quality or happiness. One reason is that increasing the money supply has no effect on reducing interest rates. Inelastic demand for investment. In a liquidity trap, firms are not tempted by harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston lower interest rates. The marginal efficiency of capital indicates the rate of return from investment. Usually, lower interest rates make it more profitable to borrow and introduction of essay writing trinity college school invest. However, in a recession, firms don't want to invest because they expect low demand. Therefore, even though it may be cheap to mit coursework Bournemouth University borrow - they don't want to risk making investment. Expectations of mit coursework Bournemouth University deflation . If there is deflation or people expect deflation (fall in prices) then real interest rates can be quite high even if nominal interest rates are zero. - If prices are falling 2% a year, then keeping cash under your mattress means your money will increase in value. The difficulty is in having negative nominal interest rates (banks would be paying you to borrow money). (There have been attempts to create a negative interest rates (e.g. destroy money in circulation but in practice, it is mit coursework Bournemouth University rarely implemented.) Preference for saving . Liquidity traps occur during periods of article article les roches international school of hotel management recessions and a gloomy economic outlook. Consumers, firms and banks are pessimistic about the future, so they look to increase their precautionary savings and it is mit coursework Bournemouth University difficult to get them to spend. This rise in the savings ratio means spending falls. Also, in recessions banks are much more reluctant to focus on writing paragraphs and essays bosworth independent college lend. Also, cutting the base rate to 0% may not translate into lower commercial bank lending rates as banks just don't want to mit coursework Bournemouth University lend. Credit Crunch. Banks lost significant sums of money in buying sub-prime debt which defaulted. Therefore, they are seeking to improve their balance sheets. mit coursework Bournemouth University! They are reluctant to lend so even if firms and consumers want to take advantage of mit coursework Bournemouth University low-interest rates, banks won't lend them the money. Unwillingness to hold bonds . If interest rates are zero, investors will expect interest rates to rise sometime. If interest rates rise, the price of bonds falls (see: inverse relationship between bond yields and focus on writing paragraphs and essays bosworth independent college bond prices) Therefore, investors would rather keep cash savings than hold bonds. Banks don't pass base rate cuts onto article article les roches international school of hotel management, consumers. Quantitative Easing - policy to create money and reduce yields on government and corporate bonds Helicopter money - more direct than quantitative easing as rather than buying assets from banks, the money is given directly to the people. Expansionary Fiscal Policy - Keynes argued in a liquidity trap, it is necessary for a government to pursue direct investment in the economy. For example, building public work schemes has the effect of creating demand and getting unused resources back into the circular flow. Overcoming a Liquidity trap Higher Inflation Expectations Liquidity Trap and mit coursework Bournemouth University Fiscal Policy Liquidity explained. Cost of borrowing is more expensive. If borrowing is mit coursework Bournemouth University more expensive consumers will take out fewer loans. Firms will borrow less. Therefore consumer spending and investment will fall (or increase at harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston, slower rates) Mortgage and loan repayments increase. This reduces consumer disposable income and consumer spending further. Return on savings increase. More attractive to mit coursework Bournemouth University save and this will reduce consumer spending Higher interest rates cause an appreciation in the essay writing argumentative university of the pacific exchange rate due to hot money flows. Define essay writing St. Michael's School! (It is more attractive to save in the UK, if UK interest rates are higher than other countries) An appreciation in the how to write an article for a blog mercersburg academy exchange rate makes more expensive, leading to less export demand Fall in asset prices. Higher interest rates can make it less attractive to buy a house with a mortgage leading to lower house prices. ------------------------ If consumer spending and investment falls, this will lead to lower AD. Therefore this causes a fall in harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston, Real GDP or at least a fall in the rate of economic growth. Lower growth will tend to increase unemployment. With less output, firms demand less workers. Lower growth will also help to reduce inflation. --------- In Credit Crunch of 2008, lower interest rates failed to boost economic growth. Inflation target of how to write an article for a blog mercersburg academy 2%. But Bank has to consider other objectives such as economic growth and inflation. Harvardbusinessreview University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston! It also has to consider the type of inflation. Is it temporary cost-push inflation or underlying inflationary pressures. Is the economy reaching full capacity? Graph showing combination of high inflation and volatile output. The Bank of England deregulated the mortgage market - meaning High Street Banks could now lend mortgages (not just local building societies). This helped fuel a rise in house prices and consumer wealth. Define essay writing St. Michael's School! Barber Boom of 1972. Essay writing argumentative University of the Pacific! In the 1972 budget, the how to write an article for a blog mercersburg academy chancellor Anthony Barber made a dash for mit coursework Bournemouth University, growth - with large tax cuts against a backdrop of mit coursework Bournemouth University high economic growth. Growth of Credit. It was in the 1970s, we saw the first mass use of credit cards (Access). This helped create a consumer bubble. Rising wages, partly due to strength of introduction of essay writing trinity college school unions. The inflationary budget of 1972. Growth in credit and consumer spending. Oil price shock of 1973, leading to 70% increase in oil prices. Oil Prices in the 1970s. blue line - nominal oil prices Yellow line - Real oil prices, adjusted for inflation. Since oil had become an intrinsic part of the economy, we had taken it for granted that oil could be bought cheaply. The 1960s and early 1970s, saw a rapid rise in ownership of cars and mit coursework Bournemouth University motoring. Britain enthusiastically embraced the motor car - helped by rising incomes and mit coursework Bournemouth University cheap petrol. In the mid 1970s, the mit coursework Bournemouth University UK saw a deterioration in the current account. High UK inflation was making UK goods less competitive. Also domestic consumer spending remained relatively strong - sucking in more imports. Although the current account reached a peak of only 4% of GDP in late 1974, (low compared to current account in harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston, 2000s) there were greater concerns about financing the current account deficit in the 1970s due to less investment income. Due to rise in GDP, total public sector debt fell from mit coursework Bournemouth University, approx 60% of GDP (1970) to 50% in 1980 (see: National debt. What to produce? - Is it worth spending more on health care? How to produce? - Should we leave it to market forces or implement government regulations. For whom to produce? - How should we distribute resources, should we place higher income tax on the wealthiest in society? However, the mit coursework Bournemouth University problem is that economists may often disagree on the best solution to these challenges. For example, at focus on writing paragraphs and essays bosworth independent college, the start of the great depression in 1930, leading economists in the mit coursework Bournemouth University UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the budget; i.e. higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and led to a fall in demand. The over mit coursework Bournemouth University, production of negative externalities (e.g. mit coursework Bournemouth University! pollution/congestion) The underproduction of goods with positive externalities (e.g. education, health care, public transport). Non-provision of Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus. This means placing excess importance on the current time period and making decisions our future self may regret. This includes over-consumption of demerit goods like alcohol and tobacco and failure to mit coursework Bournemouth University save for define essay writing st. michael's school, a pension. A run on the pound is define essay writing st. michael's school more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. e.g. when the focus on writing paragraphs and essays bosworth independent college Government is committed to trying to keep the Pound at a certain level. If markets feel this level is unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is forced to devalue. For example, in 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of Sterling in ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the UK out and we had to devalue. The graph above shows the near 20% devaluation in 1992. We also had a run on the pound in the essay writing argumentative university of the pacific late 60s, causing the Wilson government to devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to mit coursework Bournemouth University maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on mit coursework Bournemouth University, the Pound as markets feared the UK's fiscal position. Financial crisis depreciation. The credit crunch of 2008 hit the essay writing argumentative university of the pacific UK economy hard because it was more reliant on the financial sector than most other economies. High inflation - high inflation reduces the value of Pound Sterling. Foreign investors will be nervous of holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. Threat of sovereign debt default . mit coursework Bournemouth University! If markets feel government borrowing is too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of foreigners losing their government bonds. Therefore, the mit coursework Bournemouth University market will sell bonds causing an outflow of foreign currency and fall in value of sterling. mit coursework Bournemouth University! This can build up a momentum effect. As the mit coursework Bournemouth University fall in the currency can alarm other investors. Large current account deficit. A large current account deficit implies we rely on capital flows to finance the current account deficit. Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. mit coursework Bournemouth University! In this circumstance a run on the Pound would be stronger. However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the 1980s. (See: Current account deficit) Interest rates can influence the rate of inflation and the mit coursework Bournemouth University rate of economic growth. The Bank of England change the 'base' interest rate to try and mit coursework Bournemouth University target the government's inflation rate of mit coursework Bournemouth University 2% +/-1 Generally, an increase in inflation leads to article article les roches international school of hotel management higher interest rates. mit coursework Bournemouth University! A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in the UK. Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against the effects of article article les roches international school of hotel management inflation. However, in 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. A negative real interest rate is bad news for savers, but good news for borrowers. Article article Les Roches International School of Hotel Management! Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the Bank of England increases interest rates to reduce inflationary pressure. Higher interest rates tend to reduce consumer spending. mit coursework Bournemouth University! This is because homeowners see an increase in the cost of their mortgage payments and have less disposable income. mit coursework Bournemouth University! Therefore, they spend less. Also, higher interest rates increase the incentive to save and reduce the incentive to borrow. Therefore, an mit coursework Bournemouth University, increase in interest rates tends to reduce the rate of economic growth and prevent inflationary pressures. See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on mit coursework Bournemouth University, economy Response to harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston Fall in Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and increase disposable income. Why A Cut in Interest Rates May Not Work. The recession was so sharp that investment and consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in interest rates have only mit coursework Bournemouth University mitigated the focus on writing paragraphs and essays bosworth independent college extent of the downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on essay writing argumentative university of the pacific, spending. Lower interest rates should boost spending. But, with house prices falling 20% since the peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and therefore reduced spending. Global downturn. Even sharp depreciation has been unable to boost export growth because of the extent of the economic downturn. Time Lags. A cut in interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage. Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to pass the interest rate cut onto consumers. In some circumstances, the Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in inflation. For example, in 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to mit coursework Bournemouth University 5%, but, the Central Bank kept interest rates low. Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at risk of inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and push the economy back into recession. Related. In October 1990, the UK made the decision to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the Pound was supposed to be kept at a certain level against the DM. £1 = DM2.95. The lower limit for the exchange rate was DM 2.773. How to write an article for a blog Mercersburg Academy! If the Pound approached this level, the government would be obliged to intervene - through buying Pounds and raising interest rates. The exchange rate mechanism was designed as a precursor to mit coursework Bournemouth University joining the Euro. The aim was to keep exchange rates stable; it was hoped this would: Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to join the single currency - the Euro. In the late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her more euro-sceptic views wanted to stay out. The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by mit coursework Bournemouth University booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates. Growth reached record levels of 4-5% a year. Enthusiastic government ministers talked of an economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an illusion. High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to article article les roches international school of hotel management convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the mit coursework Bournemouth University ERM to help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in October 1990. at a rate of DM 2.95 to the Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is more attractive to save in article article les roches international school of hotel management, UK with high interest rates. mit coursework Bournemouth University! Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. High interest rates particularly hit the housing market. With rising house prices, many had taken out large mortgages to get on the property ladder. Essay writing argumentative University of the Pacific! But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the recession, the housing market saw a dramatic fall in prices that was to last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. But, more problematically, the high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the British government fought a losing battle. How to write an article for a blog Mercersburg Academy! But, the foreign currency reserves of the British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and the pound kept sliding. It is estimated that the Treasury used £27 billion of foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Pound. The Treasury estimated the essay writing argumentative university of the pacific final cost to the taxpayer was estimated at £3.4 billion. An overvalued currency can lead to lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. mit coursework Bournemouth University! Trying to keep currency at mit coursework Bournemouth University, a level which is too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. mit coursework Bournemouth University! It is hard to buck the introduction of essay writing trinity college school market. mit coursework Bournemouth University! Even government intervention on foreign currency markets is not sufficient to prevent depreciation if this is what reflects market fundamentals. A devaluation of the currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the economy was depressed. Related. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past. With the exception of civil war in Yugoslavia (which wasn't in the EU at the time), Europe has managed to heal the mit coursework Bournemouth University divisions which were so painfully exposed in the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. The EU was awarded the mit coursework Bournemouth University Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 for helping to promote peace and mit coursework Bournemouth University international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and political stability. Legal and human rights. The EU has a strong commitment to human rights, preventing discrimination and the due process of law. This makes the EU attractive to countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to share in similar legal and human rights. Prospect of membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. The Copenhagen Criteria for EU membership enshrine a commitment to mit coursework Bournemouth University human rights, the rule of law and a market economy. The prospect of gaining membership of the EU, encourage countries to implement human rights legislation. Economic benefits. EU is one of strongest economic areas in the world. With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the how to write an article for a blog mercersburg academy world's population but accounts for mit coursework Bournemouth University, 23% of nominal global GDP. Free trade and removal of mit coursework Bournemouth University non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and prices for consumers. Increased trade with the EU creates jobs and higher income. mit coursework Bournemouth University! Over 52% of UK exports are to the EU. Trade within the EU has increased 30% since 1992. Article article Les Roches International School of Hotel Management! According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the Single Market has boosted the EU’s GDP by mit coursework Bournemouth University €877 billion [£588 billion]. This represents €5,700 [£3,819] of extra income per harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston, household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by harvardbusinessreview university of massachusetts boston — umass boston Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). Focus on writing paragraphs and essays Bosworth Independent College! The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the introduction of essay writing trinity college school EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of article article les roches international school of hotel management being in the EU. Free movement of labour and capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and Ireland have benefited from the immigration of Eastern European workers to essay writing argumentative university of the pacific fill labour market shortages in certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and cleaning. Far from 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and mit coursework Bournemouth University makes a net contribution to tax revenues. (see impact of net migration) Free movement of labour also enables British people to live and work in Europe. Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the EU outside the UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. mit coursework Bournemouth University! EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the article article les roches international school of hotel management NHS and pensions. See: Fiscal effects of immigration. Net migration has helped deal with the UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to mit coursework Bournemouth University travel freely across national boundaries making trade and tourism easier and cheaper. According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to other EU countries to mit coursework Bournemouth University work or to enjoy their retirement. 1.5 million young people have completed part of their studies in another member state with the help of the mit coursework Bournemouth University Erasmus programme. Define essay writing St. Michael's School! The possibility to mit coursework Bournemouth University study abroad is considered positive by 84% of EU citizens. (benefits of EU) Easier to use qualifications in article article les roches international school of hotel management, different member countries. This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in different national qualifications. Mutual recognition of safety standards and mit coursework Bournemouth University rules have helped reduce costs for firms. mit coursework Bournemouth University! This has encouraged the development of small and medium business who rely on the low cost of exports. Social charter enshrines protection for workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and fair pay for employment. European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the European continent. mit coursework Bournemouth University! Environmental benefits of the EU. The EU has raised the quality of introduction of essay writing trinity college school sea water and beeches, by introduction of essay writing trinity college school implementing regulations on water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. 92% of mit coursework Bournemouth University tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. (Clean water at Europa.eu) Tackling global warming. In 2006, the (EU) committed to reducing its global warming emissions by mit coursework Bournemouth University at least 20 percent of 1990 levels by 2020. The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 percent by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Environmental treaties which have sought to deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. mit coursework Bournemouth University! The EU has set strict restrictions on emissions of pollutants, such as sulphur , and other causes of acid rain. (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to avoid abuses of cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and mit coursework Bournemouth University protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of airlines, electricity and gas markets. The EU has reduced the price of making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for mit coursework Bournemouth University, making and essay writing argumentative university of the pacific receiving calls. The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to create a standard design for chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for consumers and reduce wastage. In 2014, it is has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the cost of using a mobile phone abroad. (BBC link) Consumers are free to shop in any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. So what have the EU ever done for us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas?