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www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School

In 1800, over 200 crimes were punishable by death under the statutes known as the “Bloody Code.” [1] The block was used for political crimes, the noose for things to write persuasive essays on holland international study center most other felonies, but the stake was also in use, right up until 1790. The idea that horror corrupts was not known in the eighteenth century. [2] It was not until the rise of www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School scientific and critical problem solving naba, nuova accademia di belle arti milano, psychological theory, that the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, social implications of public and violent executions were debated. The ideas that linked class and poverty with crime kept capital punishment an integral part of punishment right up until the nineteenth century. As penal reformers such as John Howard and Sir Robert Peel emerged, they brought with them an www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School alternative to the death penalty, and as such, began the abolition of the Bloody Code. The eighteenth century saw a change in the nature of crime. As the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, city of London expanded due to the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, large number of immigrants from rural communities, to the urban life of the metropolis, they brought with them their own ideas of what constituted crime and justice. In 1600, London numbered around 200,000 inhabitants, but by 1750, that figure had risen to about 700,000 [3] . The contemporaries who wrote about crime in www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School England between the eighteenth century, and the beginning of the writing a good introduction for an essay queen ethelburgas college, twentieth century perceived it as a primarily urban problem [4] . There was a belief that urban and rural crimes were markedly different. Urban societies were seen as impersonal, and that they prompted degeneracy and deviance, [5] despite this, there was a move to writing a good introduction for an essay queen ethelburgas college decline the use of the write my essays the university of canberra (navitas), rural customs, such as Largesse. Largesse was used by the rural labourers to request money for the work they had done during the harvest season. How to write a good synthesis essay Adelphi University. When put into www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, an urban setting however, it is near impossible to draw the line between this and extortion [6] , a crime still punishable by death in the eighteenth century, and into the nineteenth century. In the 1850’s, Lord Fortescue wrote of those who practiced Largesse: Numbers of sturdy beggars, particularly in summer, invade our farmhouses and cottages, and in the absence of the men extort money or provisions from the women who they find at home. Indeed in this house I have for some years kept at my own expense an assistant constable in the shape of a trusty labourer to repel the above class of visitors, some of whom when they have been saucy I have committed to Bridewell where they have almost invariably been recognised as old offenders. [7] Urban immigration led to crowding, which provided the opportunities for pickpockets and prostitutes. Shops provided for shoplifting, offices for burglary and the overcrowding at entertainments led to affrays and assault, as well as industrial theft and embezzlement [8] . International immigration was also perceived to be a factor in not only a rise in crime rates, but also a rise in the different types of crime. Havelock Ellis attested “Like insanity, criminality flourishes among migrants. [9] ” Immigrant ghettos were associated with criminality, the Irish and Jewish especially, being associated with drink and petty theft. Write my essays The University of Canberra (Navitas). [10] The ghettos in which they converged were generally the poorest areas of London , located in the East End . www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. Theorists classed them as unacculturated with respect to things to write persuasive essays on holland international study center morality and status, and susceptible to the lures of profit and www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, notoriety [11] . Thus the places where they converged were seen as centres of crime. As crime rates were seen to rise, due to www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School overpopulation and overcrowding it only follows that the Bloody Code would have come to the forefront of political analysis. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. V.A.C. Gatrell has argued that the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, Bloody Code did not collapse because of humanitarian sensibilities, but rather because, along with the increasing number of prosecutions, there were increasing numbers of successful prosecutions. As such, it would simply be unacceptable to execute so many individuals. [12] The new policing played its part in the prosecution of more criminals. 1750-1900 saw a great increase in professionals employed to combat crime. Between September 1829, and May 1830, 3000 uniformed constables began their beat patrols with the Metropolitan Police. The new system helped not only to prevent crime, but made the capture of the criminal much more certain. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. [13] Previously, the victims had undertaken the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, pursuit of offenders, and parish constables kept them. These constables were usually men assigned their turn to the job, and more often than not unwilling to perform. [14] As the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, urban metropolis of London grew during the eighteenth century, it saw the major developments and proposals of police reform. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. [15] In the late 1700s Sir John Fielding drew up plans for a centralised police force in London, but they came to nothing until the abortive legislation of the 1780’s and the Middlesex Justice Act of 1792. [16] Patrick Colquhoun was vital in the creation of how to write a good synthesis essay adelphi university a Thames Police Office at Wapping, which was instrumental in the creation of an www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School effective preventative police force. [17] The 1820’s saw writers for various London magazines hoping that a preventative police force and inescapable penalties would slow the pace of crime. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. [18] With this now effective police force, more offenders were being captured, and critical problem solving naba, nuova accademia di belle arti milano, so, more offenders were being convicted. With over how to write a good synthesis essay adelphi university 200 crimes punishable by death under the Bloody Code, this created an incredible number of people who were to suffer the death penalty. This naturally led to write my essays the university of canberra (navitas) a re-evaluation of the practicality of this code, and thus a redevelopment of its statutes, but also explains why it came into such force during the eighteenth century. The Death penalty was supported by www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, two very powerful factors. It was the last remnant of an old penal system [19] , which was slowly coming to an end. It had the power of an age-old tradition, something the nineteenth century Londoners did not want to lose. The second factor was public indignation. Although psychologists have labelled this indignation as a need for members of society to scapegoat others for their own violent impulses [20] , it can still not be overlooked as a factor prevalent in the debate over the abolition of capital punishment. The reformers were met with indignation at the suggestion that a man should not be hanged for stealing to feed his starving family. It was believed that, should even one man be acquitted, the city would be overrun by critical thinking important university of dayton, property crime. [21] Until 1818, stealing goods worth five shillings from a shop involved the death sentence. Despite this however, by 1861, only four crimes remained capital: murder, piracy, treason, and arson in Her Majesty’s dockyards [22] . The spirit of reform was in the air, and even turned up in unusual places. An excerpt from the end of 1849, in London ’s Punch magazine reads: It may seem astonishing that there should exist, in this nineteenth century, such a folly as that instanced in the following paragraph, extracted from the Boston [Lincolnshire, England] Herald:- “SUPERSTITION,-On Friday last a respectable looking female, afflicted with a wen in the neck, applied at Lincoln Castle, after the execution of WARD, for leave to see the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, body, with a view of curing her disease; the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, request was very properly refused.” It may, however, be questioned whether a man hanged is not as likely to remove a wen as to put an end to murder. The remedy has been long enough tried for the latter complaint, but without success. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. [23] Among the critical problem solving naba, nuova accademia di belle arti milano, reformers who wished to put an end to the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, Bloody code were Bernard Mandeville and Henry Fielding. They argued that the executed became heroes in the opinion of the crowd. Mandeville wrote against write my essays the university of canberra (navitas) the iniquities of Tyburn, „The day appointed by law for the thief’s shame is the day of glory in his own opinion“ [24] . www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. In Gay’s The Beggars Opera , The Character of Polly Peachum also illustrates this: . methinks I see him already in the cart, sweeter and www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, more lovely than the nosegay in www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School his hand! – I hear the crowd extolling his resloution and www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, intepidity! – What volleys of sighs are sent from the windows of Holborn, that so comely a youth should be brought to www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School disgrace! – I see him at the tree. The whole circle are in tears! – even butchers weep! – Jack Ketch himself hesitates to perform his duty, and would be glad to lose his fee, by a reprieve. [25] Although the glorification of the accused was a problem, the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, unruliness of the spectators did a lot to www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School move the executions into a less public sphere, and from 1868 onward, after the passing of the Capital Punishment within Prisons Act , all executions were carried out behind prison walls, away from the public eye [26] . The technique of how to write a good synthesis essay adelphi university hanging was originally conceived of as an writing a good introduction for an essay queen ethelburgas college especially degrading means of death. The deterrent was meant to come from carrying out the executions in public. It was a means of strangulation. The convicted criminal could live for several minutes dangling from the gallows, and his (or her) contortions were part of the deterrent, however it was hard to know whether the spectators identified with the victim, or the executioner. [27] The major lesson the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, gallows were meant to critical problem solving naba, nuova accademia di belle arti milano teach was the absolute authority of the law, but as the sentenced criminals were glorified, public execution had lost the power to frighten the spectators. [28] The growth of the press meant greater publicity for executions, which probably led to how to write a good synthesis essay adelphi university greater crowds attending them. The authorities had lost control of the pillory and www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, were losing control of „The Hanging Tree“ [29] . As such, reformers jumped on this as an opportunity to outline the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, fact that capital punishment was no longer acting as a deterrent, and so, as the nineteenth century dawned, the Bloody Code slowly came to an end. One of the main arguments put forward by the abolitionists was the fallability of human judgement. As the eighteenth century dawned into things to write persuasive essays on holland international study center, the nineteenth, juries became reulctant to convivt a criminal under the critical problem solving naba, nuova accademia di belle arti milano, death penalty. Some claimed it outraged their sense of humanity and justice. Write my essays The University of Canberra (Navitas). [30] This is not to suggest however that this did not lessen society’s condemnation of crimes. They felt just as strongly about the nature of crime as did their forebears, however contemporary Londoners felt a constant fear that even the most careful of criminal courts could discover that it took its decision without all the relevant facts. Problem solving technique Washington Academy. [31] It would seem that often, the changes instituted at this time, were due less from www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School a desire to humanise punishment, than from www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School a desire to protect the upper classes from the social upheaval of the lower classes due to critical problem solving naba, nuova accademia di belle arti milano brutal and unequal punishment. [32] The lack of www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School convictions came not only from empathetic jurors however, but many of the victims did not prosecute to write my essays the university of canberra (navitas) begin with, as they did not wish to be the cause of someone being executed. The reformers Sir Samuel Romilly, and Sir James Mackintosh used this as one of the how to write a good synthesis essay adelphi university, principal reasons from bringing about the drastic reduction in the number of critical thinking important university of dayton capital statutes in existence in the Bloody Code: ‚Numerous and respectable witnesses’ testified to the 1819 Select Committee on www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School Criminal Laws ‚that a great reluctance prevail[ed] to prosecute’ in some capital crimes and, unfortunately, this reluctance had had the effect of producing immunity to problem solving technique washington academy such a degree, that it may be considered as among the temptations to the commision of crimes.’ [33] Not only were juries loathe convicting, as were the victims, however, some were reducing the value of stolen property so as to reduce the charge against the prisoner, and bring them out write my essays the university of canberra (navitas), of range of capital punishment [34] . This forced prosecutors to think very seriously about how to write a good synthesis essay adelphi university, the outcomes if they were to proceed with the statutes. All developing moral sensibilities aside, perhaps the most influential reasons for the diminishing of the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, Bloody Code, was the fact that alternatives were developing. Incarceration was the problem solving technique washington academy, emerging norm, and the 1820’s saw a stress on restitution, rectitude and deterrence through this means. Writers in the 1830’s had faith that a depersonalised, but unvarying, system would somehow improve all people. [35] Many theorists regretted the lack of opportunity for www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School remorse under capital punishment, especially those guilty of lesser crimes. [36] Life imprisonment was seen as sufficient retribution for more serious crimes. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. John Howard was a reformer who paved the problem solving technique washington academy, way for www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School improvements in the prison system, which would not only deter, but give the offenders the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, opportunity to reflect on their evil ways and write my essays the university of canberra (navitas), reform themselves. [37] Michael Foucault expressed a desire to establish a disciplined society in which punishment came through the writing a good introduction for an essay queen ethelburgas college, institutions who exercised their power and www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, new forms of knowledge. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. He claimed that the punishment in use, which may engender feelings of revulsion, did not necessarily deter, and so, advised the development of prisons, asylums, barracks, factories and schools, which were all brought into www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, fruition through forms of expert knowledge, such as medicine and psychiatry. [38] The end result of prison reform was coercion, class domination and a technical means to www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School power. [39] While Sir William Meredith claimed that “none should be punished with death” and that if a man “who has privately picked a pocket of things to write persuasive essays on holland international study center a handkerchief worth thirteen pence, is punished with the same severity, as if he had murdered a whole family of benefactors” it would only make him worse and more dangerous. [40] It was attested however, by William Eden, that prison sentences could also make offenders worse. [41] This was combated by yet more reform, resulting in the structure exemplified by www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, the Gloucester Penitentiary, in which solitary confinement was the focus. [42] With the creation of the new prison system, more accurate records were kept, and thus, the idea of a criminal record was introduced, which acted just as much as a deterrent as the death sentence ever had. [43] Therefore, the things to write persuasive essays on holland international study center, creation of an www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School ordered prison system created not only a more humane alternative to the Capital Punishment, but also deterred, making it a valid counter to the statutes of the Bloody Code. The Bloody Code was originally made up of statutes that stemmed as far back as the Tudors and the Stuarts. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. As society changed, and with it, the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, nature of crime, it became necessary to change the nature of punishment. With the emergence of new institutions, such as a preventative police force, there was a rise in successful convictions, which led to a rise in those punishable by death. The idea of killing so many people was simply humanitarianly impossible, and so, alternatives were developed to deal with this. With the development of the www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, prison system, the focus shifted from retribution to reform. After almost a century of debate, in 1957, the Homicide Act made the distinction between what crimes were, or were not punishable by death [44] and finally, in 1965, after half a century of public education and persuasion, the death penalty was completely removed from the British statute. [45] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996. Ed. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. Blom-Cooper. The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty , Gerald Duckworth and Co: London 1969. Ellis, Havelock. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. The Criminal. London, 1980. Linebaugh, Peter. The London Hanged: Crime and writing a good introduction for an essay queen ethelburgas college, Civil Society in www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School the Eighteenth Century , Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1992. Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in write my essays the university of canberra (navitas) England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987. Gatrell, V.A.C. The Haning Tree . Oford University Press: Oxford, 1994. Ed. Palmegiano, E.M. Crime in Victorian Britain : An Annotated Bibliography from Nineteenth-Century British Magazines , Greenwood Press: Westport , United States of America , 1993. Eds. Kimber, Richard & Richardson, J.J. Pressure Groups in Britain : A Reader , Aldine House: London , 1974. Morgan, R. ‘Imprisonment: A Brief History, The Contemporary Scene, and Likely Prospects’ in The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford University Press: Oxford 2002. [1] Daiches, David. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. „A Primitive Saction“ in The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty ed. Blom-Cooper, Louis. www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School. Gerald Duckworth and Co: London 1969, 39. [2] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996, 24. [3] Engel, Howard . Lord Hight Executioner , 1996, 39. [4] Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 92. [7] Lord Fortescue. „Fortescue to Palmerston, 17 January 1853“ in Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 100. [8] Emsley, Clive. Crime and www.criticalthinking.com NEOMA Business School, Society, 1987, 104. [9] Ellis, Havelock. The Criminal. London, 1980, 297.