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how to write a memoir essay Monash University

In 1800, over 200 crimes were punishable by death under the freelance article writing jobs nankai university (into) statutes known as the “Bloody Code.” [1] The block was used for political crimes, the how to write a memoir essay Monash University noose for most other felonies, but the stake was also in use, right up until 1790. The idea that horror corrupts was not known in articles service lord wandsworth college the eighteenth century. [2] It was not until the rise of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, scientific and psychological theory, that the social implications of public and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, violent executions were debated. The ideas that linked class and poverty with crime kept capital punishment an integral part of punishment right up until the nineteenth century. As penal reformers such as John Howard and Sir Robert Peel emerged, they brought with them an alternative to the death penalty, and as such, began the abolition of the Bloody Code. The eighteenth century saw a change in the nature of crime. As the city of London expanded due to the large number of how to write a good cause and effect essay saxion university of applied sciences, immigrants from rural communities, to the urban life of the metropolis, they brought with them their own ideas of what constituted crime and justice. In 1600, London numbered around 200,000 inhabitants, but by how to write a memoir essay Monash University, 1750, that figure had risen to about 700,000 [3] . The contemporaries who wrote about crime in England between the eighteenth century, and the beginning of the twentieth century perceived it as a primarily urban problem [4] . how to write a memoir essay Monash University. There was a belief that urban and rural crimes were markedly different. Urban societies were seen as impersonal, and that they prompted degeneracy and deviance, [5] despite this, there was a move to articles service lord wandsworth college, decline the use of the rural customs, such as Largesse. Largesse was used by the rural labourers to request money for the work they had done during the harvest season. When put into an urban setting however, it is near impossible to draw the line between this and extortion [6] , a crime still punishable by death in how to write a memoir essay Monash University the eighteenth century, and into the nineteenth century. In the thinking thinking seneca college 1850’s, Lord Fortescue wrote of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, those who practiced Largesse: Numbers of sturdy beggars, particularly in summer, invade our farmhouses and cottages, and in how to write a memoir essay Monash University the absence of the men extort money or provisions from how to write a memoir essay Monash University, the women who they find at home. Indeed in this house I have for some years kept at how to write a good cause and effect essay saxion university of applied sciences, my own expense an assistant constable in the shape of a trusty labourer to repel the above class of visitors, some of whom when they have been saucy I have committed to Bridewell where they have almost invariably been recognised as old offenders. [7] Urban immigration led to crowding, which provided the opportunities for pickpockets and prostitutes. Shops provided for how to write a memoir essay Monash University, shoplifting, offices for burglary and the overcrowding at entertainments led to affrays and assault, as well as industrial theft and embezzlement [8] . International immigration was also perceived to be a factor in not only a rise in crime rates, but also a rise in how to write a memoir essay Monash University the different types of crime. how to write a memoir essay Monash University. Havelock Ellis attested “Like insanity, criminality flourishes among migrants. [9] ” Immigrant ghettos were associated with criminality, the Irish and how to write a summary essay the university of south australia (navitas), Jewish especially, being associated with drink and petty theft. [10] The ghettos in which they converged were generally the poorest areas of London , located in the East End . how to write a memoir essay Monash University. Theorists classed them as unacculturated with respect to morality and status, and how to write a good cause and effect essay saxion university of applied sciences, susceptible to how to write a memoir essay Monash University, the lures of profit and notoriety [11] . Thus the places where they converged were seen as centres of crime. As crime rates were seen to rise, due to overpopulation and overcrowding it only follows that the Bloody Code would have come to the forefront of freelance article writing jobs nankai university (into), political analysis. V.A.C. How to write a summary essay The University of South Australia (Navitas). Gatrell has argued that the Bloody Code did not collapse because of humanitarian sensibilities, but rather because, along with the increasing number of prosecutions, there were increasing numbers of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, successful prosecutions. As such, it would simply be unacceptable to how to write a memoir essay Monash University, execute so many individuals. [12] The new policing played its part in the prosecution of more criminals. 1750-1900 saw a great increase in professionals employed to combat crime. Between September 1829, and May 1830, 3000 uniformed constables began their beat patrols with the Metropolitan Police. The new system helped not only to prevent crime, but made the capture of the criminal much more certain. [13] Previously, the victims had undertaken the pursuit of offenders, and parish constables kept them. These constables were usually men assigned their turn to the job, and how to write a summary essay the university of south australia (navitas), more often than not unwilling to perform. Writing and essay Hurtwood House. [14] As the how to write a memoir essay Monash University urban metropolis of London grew during the eighteenth century, it saw the major developments and proposals of police reform. [15] In the late 1700s Sir John Fielding drew up plans for a centralised police force in London, but they came to how to write a memoir essay Monash University, nothing until the abortive legislation of the 1780’s and the Middlesex Justice Act of 1792. [16] Patrick Colquhoun was vital in the creation of a Thames Police Office at Wapping, which was instrumental in the creation of an effective preventative police force. [17] The 1820’s saw writers for various London magazines hoping that a preventative police force and inescapable penalties would slow the how to write a memoir essay Monash University pace of crime. [18] With this now effective police force, more offenders were being captured, and so, more offenders were being convicted. With over 200 crimes punishable by death under the Bloody Code, this created an how to write a memoir essay Monash University, incredible number of people who were to suffer the death penalty. This naturally led to a re-evaluation of the practicality of this code, and thus a redevelopment of its statutes, but also explains why it came into such force during the eighteenth century. The Death penalty was supported by two very powerful factors. It was the last remnant of an old penal system [19] , which was slowly coming to an end. It had the power of an age-old tradition, something the nineteenth century Londoners did not want to thinking thinking seneca college, lose. The second factor was public indignation. Although psychologists have labelled this indignation as a need for members of society to scapegoat others for articles service lord wandsworth college, their own violent impulses [20] , it can still not be overlooked as a factor prevalent in the debate over the abolition of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, capital punishment. The reformers were met with indignation at the suggestion that a man should not be hanged for stealing to feed his starving family. It was believed that, should even one man be acquitted, the city would be overrun by property crime. [21] Until 1818, stealing goods worth five shillings from a shop involved the death sentence. Despite this however, by 1861, only four crimes remained capital: murder, piracy, treason, and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, arson in Her Majesty’s dockyards [22] . The spirit of reform was in the air, and even turned up in unusual places. An excerpt from the end of 1849, in London ’s Punch magazine reads: It may seem astonishing that there should exist, in this nineteenth century, such a folly as that instanced in the following paragraph, extracted from the Boston [Lincolnshire, England] Herald:- “SUPERSTITION,-On Friday last a respectable looking female, afflicted with a wen in the neck, applied at Lincoln Castle, after the execution of WARD, for how to write a memoir essay Monash University, leave to see the body, with a view of curing her disease; the request was very properly refused.” It may, however, be questioned whether a man hanged is freelance article writing jobs nankai university (into) not as likely to remove a wen as to put an how to write a memoir essay Monash University, end to murder. The remedy has been long enough tried for the latter complaint, but without success. how to write a memoir essay Monash University. [23] Among the reformers who wished to put an end to the Bloody code were Bernard Mandeville and Henry Fielding. how to write a memoir essay Monash University. They argued that the executed became heroes in the opinion of the crowd. Mandeville wrote against the iniquities of Tyburn, „The day appointed by law for the thief’s shame is the day of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, glory in his own opinion“ [24] . In Gay’s The Beggars Opera , The Character of Polly Peachum also illustrates this: . methinks I see him already in the cart, sweeter and more lovely than the nosegay in his hand! – I hear the how to write a summary essay the university of south australia (navitas) crowd extolling his resloution and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, intepidity! – What volleys of sighs are sent from the windows of Holborn, that so comely a youth should be brought to disgrace! – I see him at the tree. The whole circle are in tears! – even butchers weep! – Jack Ketch himself hesitates to perform his duty, and would be glad to lose his fee, by a reprieve. [25] Although the glorification of writing and essay hurtwood house, the accused was a problem, the unruliness of the spectators did a lot to how to write a memoir essay Monash University, move the executions into a less public sphere, and from 1868 onward, after the how to write a memoir essay Monash University passing of the Capital Punishment within Prisons Act , all executions were carried out behind prison walls, away from the public eye [26] . The technique of hanging was originally conceived of as an especially degrading means of death. The deterrent was meant to come from carrying out the executions in public. It was a means of strangulation. The convicted criminal could live for articles service lord wandsworth college, several minutes dangling from the gallows, and his (or her) contortions were part of the deterrent, however it was hard to know whether the how to write a memoir essay Monash University spectators identified with the victim, or the executioner. [27] The major lesson the how to write a memoir essay Monash University gallows were meant to teach was the absolute authority of the law, but as the sentenced criminals were glorified, public execution had lost the power to frighten the spectators. [28] The growth of the press meant greater publicity for executions, which probably led to greater crowds attending them. The authorities had lost control of the pillory and were losing control of „The Hanging Tree“ [29] . As such, reformers jumped on this as an opportunity to outline the fact that capital punishment was no longer acting as a deterrent, and how to write a good cause and effect essay saxion university of applied sciences, so, as the nineteenth century dawned, the Bloody Code slowly came to an end. One of the main arguments put forward by the abolitionists was the fallability of human judgement. As the eighteenth century dawned into the nineteenth, juries became reulctant to convivt a criminal under the freelance article writing jobs nankai university (into) death penalty. Some claimed it outraged their sense of writing and essay hurtwood house, humanity and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, justice. Thinking thinking Seneca College. [30] This is not to suggest however that this did not lessen society’s condemnation of crimes. They felt just as strongly about the nature of crime as did their forebears, however contemporary Londoners felt a constant fear that even the most careful of criminal courts could discover that it took its decision without all the relevant facts. [31] It would seem that often, the how to write a memoir essay Monash University changes instituted at writing and essay hurtwood house, this time, were due less from a desire to humanise punishment, than from a desire to protect the upper classes from the social upheaval of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, the lower classes due to brutal and unequal punishment. [32] The lack of convictions came not only from empathetic jurors however, but many of the victims did not prosecute to begin with, as they did not wish to be the cause of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, someone being executed. The reformers Sir Samuel Romilly, and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, Sir James Mackintosh used this as one of the principal reasons from bringing about the drastic reduction in the number of capital statutes in how to write a memoir essay Monash University existence in the Bloody Code: ‚Numerous and respectable witnesses’ testified to how to write an article review washington academy, the 1819 Select Committee on Criminal Laws ‚that a great reluctance prevail[ed] to prosecute’ in some capital crimes and, unfortunately, this reluctance had had the effect of producing immunity to such a degree, that it may be considered as among the how to write a memoir essay Monash University temptations to the commision of crimes.’ [33] Not only freelance article writing jobs nankai university (into) were juries loathe convicting, as were the victims, however, some were reducing the value of stolen property so as to how to write an article review washington academy, reduce the charge against the prisoner, and bring them out of how to write a good cause and effect essay saxion university of applied sciences, range of capital punishment [34] . Articles service Lord Wandsworth College. This forced prosecutors to how to write a memoir essay Monash University, think very seriously about the outcomes if they were to proceed with the statutes. All developing moral sensibilities aside, perhaps the most influential reasons for the diminishing of the Bloody Code, was the fact that alternatives were developing. Incarceration was the emerging norm, and the 1820’s saw a stress on restitution, rectitude and deterrence through this means. Writers in the 1830’s had faith that a depersonalised, but unvarying, system would somehow improve all people. [35] Many theorists regretted the how to write a memoir essay Monash University lack of opportunity for remorse under capital punishment, especially those guilty of lesser crimes. [36] Life imprisonment was seen as sufficient retribution for more serious crimes. how to write a memoir essay Monash University. John Howard was a reformer who paved the way for improvements in the prison system, which would not only deter, but give the offenders the opportunity to how to write a summary essay the university of south australia (navitas), reflect on their evil ways and reform themselves. [37] Michael Foucault expressed a desire to establish a disciplined society in how to write a memoir essay Monash University which punishment came through the institutions who exercised their power and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, new forms of knowledge. He claimed that the punishment in how to write a memoir essay Monash University use, which may engender feelings of revulsion, did not necessarily deter, and so, advised the development of prisons, asylums, barracks, factories and schools, which were all brought into fruition through forms of expert knowledge, such as medicine and psychiatry. [38] The end result of prison reform was coercion, class domination and a technical means to power. Thinking thinking Seneca College. [39] While Sir William Meredith claimed that “none should be punished with death” and that if a man “who has privately picked a pocket of a handkerchief worth thirteen pence, is punished with the same severity, as if he had murdered a whole family of benefactors” it would only make him worse and more dangerous. [40] It was attested however, by how to write a memoir essay Monash University, William Eden, that prison sentences could also make offenders worse. [41] This was combated by yet more reform, resulting in the structure exemplified by the Gloucester Penitentiary, in which solitary confinement was the focus. [42] With the creation of the new prison system, more accurate records were kept, and thus, the idea of a criminal record was introduced, which acted just as much as a deterrent as the articles service lord wandsworth college death sentence ever had. [43] Therefore, the creation of an ordered prison system created not only a more humane alternative to the Capital Punishment, but also deterred, making it a valid counter to the statutes of the Bloody Code. The Bloody Code was originally made up of statutes that stemmed as far back as the Tudors and the Stuarts. As society changed, and with it, the nature of crime, it became necessary to change the nature of punishment. With the how to write a memoir essay Monash University emergence of new institutions, such as a preventative police force, there was a rise in successful convictions, which led to articles service lord wandsworth college, a rise in how to write a memoir essay Monash University those punishable by death. The idea of killing so many people was simply humanitarianly impossible, and so, alternatives were developed to deal with this. With the development of the prison system, the articles service lord wandsworth college focus shifted from retribution to reform. After almost a century of debate, in 1957, the Homicide Act made the distinction between what crimes were, or were not punishable by death [44] and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, finally, in 1965, after half a century of public education and persuasion, the death penalty was completely removed from how to write a summary essay the university of south australia (navitas), the British statute. how to write a memoir essay Monash University. [45] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996. Ed. Blom-Cooper. The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty , Gerald Duckworth and Co: London 1969. Ellis, Havelock. The Criminal. London, 1980. Linebaugh, Peter. how to write a memoir essay Monash University. The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century , Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1992. Emsley, Clive. Crime and how to write a memoir essay Monash University, Society in how to write an article review washington academy England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987. Gatrell, V.A.C. The Haning Tree . Oford University Press: Oxford, 1994. Ed. Palmegiano, E.M. Crime in how to write a memoir essay Monash University Victorian Britain : An Annotated Bibliography from how to write an article review washington academy, Nineteenth-Century British Magazines , Greenwood Press: Westport , United States of how to write a memoir essay Monash University, America , 1993. Eds. Kimber, Richard & Richardson, J.J. Pressure Groups in Britain : A Reader , Aldine House: London , 1974. Morgan, R. вЂImprisonment: A Brief History, The Contemporary Scene, and Likely Prospects’ in how to write a memoir essay Monash University The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford University Press: Oxford 2002. [1] Daiches, David. „A Primitive Saction“ in The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty ed. How to write a good cause and effect essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences. Blom-Cooper, Louis. Gerald Duckworth and Co: London 1969, 39. [2] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996, 24. [3] Engel, Howard . Lord Hight Executioner , 1996, 39. [4] Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 92. [7] Lord Fortescue. „Fortescue to how to write a memoir essay Monash University, Palmerston, 17 January 1853“ in Emsley, Clive. how to write a memoir essay Monash University. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 100. [8] Emsley, Clive. Articles service Lord Wandsworth College. Crime and Society, 1987, 104. [9] Ellis, Havelock. The Criminal. London, 1980, 297.