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write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School

For the sake of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School our discussion a relational database is a persistent storage mechanism that enables you to both store data and optionally implement functionality. The goal of how to write a news article roedean school this article is to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, overview relational database management system (RDBMS) technology and to explore the practical issues applicable to its use in modern organizations; the goal is not to discuss relational theory. RDBMSs are used to store the information required by applications built using procedural technologies such as COBOL or FORTRAN, object technologies such as Java and C#, and component-based technologies such as Visual Basic. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. Because RDBMSs are the dominant persistent storage technology it is critical that all IT professionals understand at least the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School basics of RDBMSs, the challenges surrounding the technology, and when it is appropriate to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, use them. Tables typically have keys, one or more columns that uniquely identify a row within the table, in the case of the Customer table the key would be CustomerNumber . To improve access time to a data table you define an index on the table. An index provides a quick way to look up data based on one or more columns in the table, just like the index of a book enables you to help writing essay paper city, university of london, find specific information quickly. The easiest way to manipulate a relational database is to submit Structured Query Language (SQL) statements to it. Figure 1 depicts a simple data model, see Data Modeling 101 or better yet Agile Data Modeling, using the proposed UML data modeling notation. How to write a conclusion for essay West Buckland School. To create a row in the Seminar table you would issue an INSERT statement, an example of which is write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, shown in Code Figure 1. Similarly, Code Figure 2 presents and example of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School how to read a row by write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, issuing a SELECT statement. Code Figure 3 shows how to update an existing row via an write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School UPDATE statement and Code Figure 4 how to delete a row with a DELETE statement. All four of these examples were taken, as well as the data model, were adapted from The Object Primer. A very good resource for write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, learning SQL is SQL Queries for Mere Mortals by Micheal J. Hernandez and John L. Viescas. Code Figure 1. SQL statement to insert a row into the "Seminar" table. (SEMINAR_ID, COURSE_ID, OVERSEER_ID, SEMINAR_NUMBER) VALUES (74656, 1234, ‘THX0001138’, 2) Code Figure 2. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. SQL statement to how to write a conclusion for essay west buckland school, retrieve a row from the "Seminar" table. WHERE SEMINAR_ID = 1701. Code Figure 3. SQL statement to update a row in help writing essay paper city, university of london a table in the "Seminar" table. SET OVERSEER_ID = ‘NCC0001701’, SEMINAR_NUMBER = 3. WHERE SEMINAR_ID = 1701. Code Figure 4. SQL statement to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, delete data from the "Seminar" table. WHERE SEMINAR_ID > 1701. AND OVERSEER_ID = ‘THX0001138’ Object storage . To store an object in a relational database you need to flatten it – create a data representation of the object – because relational databases only store data. To retrieve the courseworl curtin university singapore object you would read the data from the database and then create the how to write a news article roedean school object, often referred to as restoring the object, based on that data. Although storing objects in a relational database sounds like a simple thing to achieve, practice shows that it isn’t. This is due to the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School object-relational impedance mismatch, the how to write a conclusion for essay west buckland school fact that relational database technology and object technology are based on courseworl curtin university singapore different underlying theories, a topic discussed in write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School The Object-Relational (O/R) Impedance Mismatch. To store objects successfully in relational databases you need to learn how to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, map your object schema to courseworl curtin university singapore, your relational database schema. Implementing behavior within the database . write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. Behavior is implemented in a relational database via stored procedures and/or stored functions that can be invoked internally within the database and often by external applications. Stored functions and courseworl curtin university singapore, procedures are operations that run within an RDBMS, the difference being what the operation can return and whether it can be invoked in a query. The differences aren’t important for our purposes so the term “stored procedure” will be used to refer to both stored functions and stored procedures. In the past stored procedures were written in a proprietary language, such as Oracle’s PL/SQL, although now Java is quickly becoming the language of choice for database programming. A stored procedure typically runs some SQL code, massages the data, and then hands back a response in the form of zero or more records, or a response code, or as a database error message. Effective use of stored procedures is how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore, discussed in detail in Implementation Strategies for Persisting Objects in RDBs. Concurrency control . Consider an airline reservation system. There is write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, a flight with one seat left on how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore it, and two people are trying to reserve that seat at the same time. Both people check the flight status and are told that a seat is still available. Both enter their payment information and click the reservation button at the same time. What should happen? If the system is working properly only one person should be given a seat and the other should be told that there is no longer one available. Concurrency control is what makes this happen. Concurrency control must be implemented throughout your object source code and within your database. Transaction control . A transaction is a collection of actions on your database – such as the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School saving of, retrieval of, or deletion of data – which form a work unit. A flat transactions is an “all-or-nothing” approach where all the actions must either succeed or be rolled back (canceled). A nested transaction is an approach where some of the actions are transactions in their own right. These sub-transactions are committed once successful and write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, are not rolled back if the larger transaction fails. Transactions may also be short-lived, running in thousandths of a second, or long-lived, taking hours, days, weeks, or even months to complete. Transaction control is a critical concept for all developers to understand. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. Enforcing referential integrity . Referential integrity (RI) is the assurance that a reference from one entity to another entity is valid. For example, if a customer references an address, then that address must exist. If the address is deleted then all references to help writing essay paper city, university of london, it must also be removed, otherwise your system must not allow the deletion. Contrary to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, popular belief, RI isn’t just a database issue, it’s an issue for your entire system. How to write a conclusion for essay West Buckland School. A customer is write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, implemented as an object within a Java application and as one or more records in how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore your database – addresses are also implemented as objects and as rows. To delete an address, you must remove the address object from write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, memory, any direct or indirect references to it (an indirect reference to an address would include a customer object knowing the value of the AddressID , the primary key of the address in the database), the address row(s) from help writing essay paper city, university of london, your database, and any references to it (via foreign keys) in your database. To complicate matters, if you have a farm of application servers that address object could exist simultaneously on several machines. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. Furthermore, if you have other applications accessing your database then it is help writing essay paper city, university of london, possible that they too have representations of the address in their memory as well. Worse yet, if the courseworl curtin university singapore address is stored in several places (e.g. different databases) you should also consider taking this into account. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. All developers should understand basic strategies for implementing referential integrity. Table 1 describes the common technical features found in RDBMS products, potential ways that developers will use them, and the potential drawbacks associated with their use. Database cursors – A database cursor is effectively a handle to the results of a SQL query, enabling you to move forward and backward through the result set one or more records at a time. Accessing large results sets in smaller portions enables your application to display initial results earlier, increasing response time. How to write an article abstract Curtin University Singapore. Performance is improved when a portion of a result set is required because less data is transmitted across the network. Application developers need to understand that the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School underlying data can change between the times that data records are accessed via the cursor: previously retrieved records may have been deleted, records may have been inserted into how to write a news article roedean school previously retrieved portions of the result set, or previously retrieved records may have been modified. Not all cursors are created equal. Some cursors only how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore allow forward scrolling. Cursors are a resource drain on the database because they are memory intensive. Java – Most database vendors support a Java VM within the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School database. Development of relatively platform independent behavior in the database. Development of data intensive behavior that results in a relatively small return value. Encapsulation of how to write a conclusion for essay west buckland school database access to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, support security access control to writing a response essay glion london, business & hospitality school, information. Implementation of how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore shared behavior required by many applications. Different version of VMs between application server and write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, database server increases complexity of how to write a news article roedean school development. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. Behavior implemented in the database can easily become a bottleneck. Triggers – A trigger is a procedure that is run either before or after an action (such as a create, update, or delete) is performed on a row in a database table. Enforce referential integrity within your database. These types of examples of academic writing essays stenden university ofapplied sciences triggers can often be automatically generated by your data modeling or database administration tool. Often a lowest common denominator for implementing referential integrity constraints. Perform hand-crafted audit logging. Hand-crafted, or hand-modified, triggers can be difficult to maintain and will increase your dependency on your database vendor. Triggers are typically implemented in a proprietary language requiring an extra skillset on your team. Because triggers are automatically invoked they can be very dangerous (such as “uncontrolled” cascading deletions resulting from chained delete triggers). Behavior implemented in the database can easily become a bottleneck if your database doesn’t scale well. Your application source code . When you change your database schema you must also change the source code within your application that accesses the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School changed portion of the examples of academic writing essays stenden university ofapplied sciences schema. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. Figure 2 depicts the best-case scenario – when it is only your application code that is coupled to your database schema. This situation is traditionally referred to writing a response essay glion london, business & hospitality school, as a stovepipe. These situations do exist and how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore, are often referred to as stand-alone applications, stovepipe systems, or greenfield projects. Count yourself lucky if this is your situation because it is very rare in practice. Other application source code . Figure 3 depicts the worst-case scenario for relational databases – a wide variety of software systems are coupled to your database schema, a situation that is quite common with existing production databases. It is quite common to find that in addition to the application that your team is currently working on write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School that other applications, some of how to write a news article roedean school which you know about and some of which you don’t, are also coupled to your database. Perhaps an online system reads and writes to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, your database. Perhaps a manager has written a spreadsheet, unbeknownst to you, that reads data from your database that she uses to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, summarize information critical to her job. Data load source code . Data loads from other sources, such as government provided tax tables or your own test data, are often coupled to your database schema. Data extract source code . There may be data extraction scripts or programs that read data from your database, perhaps to produce an write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School XML data file or simply so your data can be loaded into another database. Persistence frameworks/layers . A persistence framework encapsulates the logic for mapping application classes to persistent storage sources such as your database. When you refactor your database schema you will need to update the meta data, or the source code as the courseworl curtin university singapore case may be, which describes the mappings. Itself . Coupling exists within your database. A single column is coupled to how to write a conclusion for essay west buckland school, any stored procedure that references it, other tables that use the column as a foreign key, any view that references the column, and so on. A simple change could result in several changes throughout your database. Data migration scripts . Changes to your database schema will require changes to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, your data migration scripts. Test code . Testing code includes any source code that puts your database into how to write a conclusion for essay west buckland school a known state, that performs transactions that affect your database, and that reads the results from the database to compare it against expected results. Clearly this code may need to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, be updated to how to write a news article roedean school, reflect any database schema changes that you make. Documentation . Some of the most important documentation that you are likely to keep pertains to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, your physical database schema, including but not limited to physical data models and write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, descriptive meta data. When your database schema changes the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School documentation describing will also need to how to write a news article roedean school, change accordingly. Although Agile Modeling implores you to Update Only When It Hurts, that your documentation doesn’t have to be perfectly in synch with your schema at all times, the reality is that you will need to update your docs at some point. How to write a news article Roedean School. As you can see, coupling is a serious issue when it comes to relational databases. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. To make matters worse the help writing essay paper city, university of london concept of coupling is virtually ignored within database theory circles. Although most database theory books will cover data normalization in excruciating detail, I argue that normalization is the data community’s way of addressing cohesion. My experience is help writing essay paper city, university of london, that coupling becomes a serious issue only when you start to consider behavioral issues (e.g. code), something that traditional database theory chooses not to address. This is another reason to follow Agile Modeling (AM)’s Multiple Models principle and writing a response essay glion london, business & hospitality school, look beyond data (Ambler 2002a). Performance issues are difficult to predict . When you are working with a shared database, such as the situation implied in Figure 3, you may find that the performance characteristics of your database are hard to predict because each application accesses the database in its own unique way. For example, perhaps one legacy application updates information pertaining to items for sale sporadically throughout the month, enabling a human operator to add new items or update existing ones, activity that doesn’t really affect your application’s performance in a meaningful way. However, this same application also performs batch loads of items available for sale via other companies that you have partnered with, items that you want to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, carry on your web site as soon as they are available. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. These batch loads can take several minutes, during which period the Item table is under heavy load and thus your online application is potentially affected. Data integrity is difficult to ensure with shared databases . Because no single application has control over the data it is very difficult to how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore, be sure that all applications are operating under the same business principles. How to write a conclusion for essay West Buckland School. For example, your application may consider an order as fulfilled once it has been shipped and a payment has been received. The original legacy application that is still in use by your customer support representatives to take orders over the examples of academic writing essays stenden university ofapplied sciences phone may consider an order as fulfilled once it has been shipped, the payment received, and the payment deposited into your bank account. A slight difference in the way that a fundamental business rule has been implemented may have serious business implications for any application that accesses the courseworl curtin university singapore shared databases. Less subtly, imagine what would happen if your online order taking application calculates the writing a response essay glion london, business & hospitality school total for write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, an order and stores it in the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School order table, whereas the legacy application calculates the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School subtotals only for help writing essay paper city, university of london, order items but does not total the order. How to write an article abstract Curtin University Singapore. When the order fulfillment application sees an order with no total it calculates the total, and appropriate taxes, whereas if a total already exists it uses the existing figure. If a customer makes an order online and then calls back a few hours later and has one of your customer service representatives modify their existing order, perhaps to add several items to it, the order total is courseworl curtin university singapore, no longer current because it has not been updated properly. Referential integrity issues such as this are covered in detail in the Implementing Referential Integrity article. Operational databases require different design strategies than reporting databases . The schemas of operational databases reflect the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School operational needs of the applications that access them, often resulting in a reasonably normalized schema with some portions of it denormalized for performance reasons. Reporting databases, on the other hand, are typically highly denormalized with significant data redundancy within them to support a wide range of reporting needs. Examples of academic writing essays Stenden University ofApplied Sciences. Every technology has its strengths and weaknesses, and RDBMS technology is not an exception to this rule. Courseworl Curtin University Singapore. Luckily there are ways that you can mitigate some of these challenges, and encapsulation is an important technique to do so. By encapsulating access to a database, perhaps through something as simple as data access objects or something as complex as a persistence framework, you can reduce the help writing essay paper city, university of london coupling that your database is involved with. How to write an article abstract Curtin University Singapore. The Implementation Strategies for Persisting Objects in how to write a news article roedean school RDBs chapter compares and contrasts various encapsulation strategies that you have available to you. For now assume that it is possible to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, hide the details of your database schema from the majority of the developers within your organization while at the same time giving them access to your database. Some people, often just the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School Agile DBA(s) responsible for supporting the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School database, will need to understand and work with the writing a response essay glion london, business & hospitality school underlying schema to maintain and how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore, evolve the encapsulation strategy. One advantage of encapsulating access to your database is that it enables application programmers to focus on the business problem itself. Let’s assume we’re doing something simple such as data access objects that implement the SQL code to access your database schema. The application programmers will work with these data access classes, not the database. This enables your Agile DBA to evolve the database schema as they need to, perhaps via database refactorings, and write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, all they need to worry about is keeping the data access classes up to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, date. This reveals a second advantage to this approach – it provides greater freedom to Agile DBAs to do their job. Figure 4 depicts the concept of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School encapsulating access to your database, showing how the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School best case scenario of help writing essay paper city, university of london Figure 2 and the worst case scenario of Figure 3 would likely change. In the best-case scenario your business source code would interact with the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School data access objects that in courseworl curtin university singapore turn would interact with the database. The primary advantage would be that all of the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School data-related code would be in one place, making it easier to modify whenever database schema changes occurred or to support performance-related changes. It’s interesting to note that the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School business code that your application programmers are writing would still be coupled to the data access objects. Therefore they’d need to change their code whenever the interface of a data access object changed. You’ll never get away from coupling. However, from the point of view of the application programmer this is a much easier change to detect and act on – with the database encapsulation strategy in place the application programmers are only help writing essay paper city, university of london dealing with program source code (e.g. Java) and not program source code plus SQL code. Things aren’t quite so ideal for the worst-case scenario. Although it is possible that all applications could take advantage of your encapsulation strategy the reality is that only a subset will be able to. Platform incompatibility can be an issue – perhaps your data access objects are written in how to write a news article roedean school Java but some legacy applications are written using technologies that can’t easily access Java. Perhaps you’ve chosen not to rework some of your legacy applications simply to use the database encapsulation strategy. Perhaps some applications already have an encapsulation strategy in place (if so, you might want to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, consider reusing the existing strategy instead of building your own). Perhaps you want to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, use technologies, such as a bulk load facility, that require direct access to the database schema. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. The point to be made is that a portion of your organization’s application will be able to take advantage of writing a response essay glion london, business & hospitality school your encapsulation strategy and some won’t. There is still a benefit to doing this, you are reducing coupling and therefore reducing your development costs and maintenance burden, the problem is that it isn’t a fully realized benefit. Another advantage of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School encapsulating access to a database is that it gives you a common place, in addition to the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School database itself, to implement data-oriented business rules. Object/relational databases . Object/relational databases (ORDBs), or more properly object/relational database management systems (ORDBMSs), add new object storage capabilities to RDBMSs. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. ORDBs, add new facilities to integrate management of traditional fielded data, complex objects such as time-series and geo-spatial data and diverse binary media such as audio, video, images, and (sometimes) Java applets. ORDBMSs basically add to RDBMSs features such as defined data types, for example you could define a data type called SurfaceAddress that has all of the attributes and write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, behaviors of how to write a conclusion for essay west buckland school an address, as well as the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School ability to navigate objects in addition to an RDBMS’s ability to join tables. By implementing objects within the database, an ORDBMS can execute complex analytical and data manipulation operations to search and transform multimedia and other complex objects. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. ORDBs support the robust transaction and data-management features of RDBMSs while at the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School same time offer a limited form of the flexibility of object-oriented databases. Because of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School ORDBMSs relational foundation, database administrators work with familiar tabular structures and data definition languages (DDLs) and programmers access them via familiar approaches such as SQL3, JDBC, and proprietary call interfaces. Object databases . How to write an article abstract Curtin University Singapore. Object databases (ODBs), also known as object-oriented databases (OODBs) or object-oriented database management systems (OODBMSs), nearly seamlessly add database/persistence functionality to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, object programming languages. In other words, full-fledged objects are implemented in the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School database. They bring much more than persistent storage of programming language objects. ODBs extend the semantics of Java to provide full-featured database programming capability, via new class libraries specific to the ODB vendor, while retaining native language compatibility. A major benefit of this approach is the unification of the application and write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, database development into help writing essay paper city, university of london a seamless model. As a result, applications require less code, use more natural persistence modeling, and code bases are easier to maintain. Object-oriented developers can write complete database applications with a modest amount of additional effort without the need to write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, marshal their objects into flatten data structures for storage, as a result forgoing the courseworl curtin university singapore marshalling overhead inherent with other persistence mechanism technologies (such as RDBs). This one-to-one mapping of application objects to database objects provides higher performance management of objects and enables better management of the complex interrelationships between objects. Native XML databases . Native XML databases store information as XML documents following one of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School two approaches: First, a native XML database will either store a modified form of the entire XML document in the file system, perhaps in a compressed or pre-parsed binary form. Second, a native XML database may opt to help writing essay paper city, university of london, map the structure of the document to the database, for example mapping the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School Document Object Model (DOM) to internal structures such as Elements, Attributes, and Text – exactly what is mapped depends on the database. The most important difference between these approaches, from the point of view of an application developer, is the way they are accessed: with the first approach the only interface to the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School data is courseworl curtin university singapore, XML and write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School, related technologies, such as XPath (a language design specifically for addressing parts of an XML document, visit www.w3.org for details) or the DOM whereas with the second approach the database should be accessible via standard technologies such as JDBC. The important thing to understand about native XML databases is that they work with the internal structures of the XML documents – they don’t just store them as a binary large object (BLOB) in the database. Flat files . Flat files, such as .TXT or. CSV (comma separated value) files, are commonly used to store data. A single file can be used to store one type of data structure, such as customer information or sales transaction information, or through a coding and formatting strategy the structures of several types of data structures. Help writing essay paper City, University of London. One approach to flat file organization is either to have data values separated by a pre-defined character, such as a comma, or tag, such as </FirstName> in write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School an XML document. How to write an article abstract Curtin University Singapore. Another common approach is to delimit data values by size – the first 20 characters of the row represent the first name of the customer, the next 20 characters represent the how to write a news article roedean school surname, and so on. Hierarchical databases . Hierarchical databases link data structures together like a family tree such that each record type has only one owner, for example an order is owned by only examples of academic writing essays stenden university ofapplied sciences one customer. write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School. Hierarchical structures were widely used in the first mainframe database management systems, and are still a very common source of data in many large organizations. How to write an article abstract Curtin University Singapore. Hierarchical databases fell out of favor with the advent of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School relational databases due to their lack of flexibility because it wouldn’t easily support data access outside the original design of the write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School data structure. For example, in the customer-order schema you could only access an order through a customer, you couldn’t easily find all the examples of academic writing essays stenden university ofapplied sciences orders that included the sale of a widget because the schema isn’t designed to all that. Prevalence layer . Klaus Wuestefeld defines prevalence as “transparent persistence, fault-tolerance and load-balancing of the execution of the business logic of an information system through the use of write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School state snapshots as well as command and query queuing or logging”. A prevalence layer is effectively a simple persistence framework that serializes objects and writes them to log files. From the point of view of courseworl curtin university singapore developers all objects are cached in memory and the persistence of the objects is truly treated as a background task that the developers don’t need to examples of academic writing essays stenden university ofapplied sciences, worry about. Table 2 presents a comparison of the how to write an article abstract curtin university singapore various types of persistence mechanism and provides references to vendors where applicable. Table 3 presents suggestions for when you might use each type of technology. Large organizations will find that they are using several types of persistence mechanism and will even install the products of several different vendors. Not only write articles and earn money Williston Northampton School do you have a choice you might be forced to how to write a news article roedean school, work with a wide range of databases whether you want to or not.