Maybe an analogy will help here. I know where every tool and ingredient is in my kitchen, and I can cook pretty efficiently. When I begin a recipe, I bring out all the ingredients, measure them, and line them up in the order in which I'll use them. Even complicated recipes seem fairly easy once I have everything laid out, and the organization gives me some sense of control.
In the chaos of my garage, on the other hand, I don't know where anything is, and nejm review Braemar College,
I'll leave a faucet dripping for a week because I don't want to hunt down a screwdriver or a wrench. I find it hard even to imagine more complicated projects. My office looks like a shambles, tooand I've wasted a lot of time looking for a book or document that I know is here somewhere . Thinking and acting are both harder when things are disorganized.
The same principle affects you and me as writers and readers. Thinking abilities SKODA AUTO University.
When things are laid out in some sort of order, we can work with them more easily. If we can impose some kind of order on information, the information is easier to talk about, easier to understand, and legit essay writing services university of california, irvine (uci),
easier to remember. If you choose a clear, recognizable pattern (for a single paragraph, and also for a whole essay), you find it easier to select details and choose transitions, and you also help your reader discover relationships that connect things, that make things seem more coherent.
Humor me for a moment and nejm review Braemar College,
agree that organization is really desirable, both in the process of writing and in the product of writing. The remaining problem is figuring out how to create or impose that organization.
My garage is such a mess that I can't see beyond the clutter, but other people have neat garages, so I know a clean garage is nejm review Braemar College,
possible . How to write journal articles Monkton Combe School.
I just need to choose some principle of organization.
I could start by putting all the lawn and garden stuff on the left wall and all the house maintenance stuff on the right wall. Then I could arrange the two sidesmaybe all the big stuff (rakes, mower, ladder, tiller, power saw) closer to the garage door, and help essay university of groningen (study group),
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far wall. Or I could arrange everything in alphabetical order, hanging or standing the stuff clockwise from the left wall, around the back, and then back along the right wall. Or I could put supplies on one wall, power tools on another, and thinking abilities skoda auto university,
manual hand tools on the third. Or I could have a section for nejm review Braemar College,
gardening, a section for lawn care, a section for exterior house maintenance, and another for nejm review Braemar College,
interior house maintenance. Maybe I could arrange them in nejm review Braemar College,
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frequency of use (if I ever used any of it . . .). nejm review Braemar College.
Actually, any of wikipedia write an article hult international business school
those principles of order would help me find stuff in my garageI just have to choose one principle and impose it.
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It's the same with writing. With any given group of ideas and details, you might use any of a number of legit essay writing services university of california, irvine (uci)
principles of organization, and any one of them would help you and h br lakefield college school,
your reader. Some will be better than others, of course (I really can't see alphabetizing the nejm review Braemar College
tools and legit essay writing services university of california, irvine (uci),
supplies in my garage, even though it would make them easier to find later). The main trick to imposing organization is to know some options and kind of essay writing bronte college,
to choose one.
[By the way, another similarity between organizing my garage and organizing writing is the need for some motivation. I don't want to organize my garage, because I don't want to do any work around the house to nejm review Braemar College
begin with. Wikipedia write an article Hult International Business School.
Leaving the place a mess suits me fine. If I never wanted to write or talk or think, I wouldn't need to deal with organizing ideas or details. Give some thought to h br lakefield college school
your own motivation as you think about this stuff.]
In A Writer's Reference , Diana Hacker talks about "patterns of organization" (section C4-c, pp. Help essay University of Groningen (Study Group).
26-31). She identifies these as.
But these are not exclusively patterns of organization. As Hacker herself says, these patterns are "sometimes called methods of wikipedia write an article hult international business school
development. " Randall Decker uses the thinking abilities skoda auto university
same patterns to group essays in our reader, and he calls them "patterns of exposition." A slightly more formal term you may run across is "rhetorical modes." These patterns (or methods or modes) are partially patterns of organization, and nejm review Braemar College,
partially patterns of developmentthat is, sometimes they help you organize content; other times they help you find content.
Some of nejm review Braemar College
these rhetorical modes do imply basic patterns for organizing information. Underlying organizational patterns seem particularly clear in comparison & contrast [you can look at the online discussion of comparison and contrast to see its basic organizational patterns]; in process [do this, then do this, then do this; or this happens, then this happens, then this happens]; and in cause & effect [this happens, then (as a result) this happens]. Organization is thinking abilities skoda auto university,
also imposed by definition [narrowing groups of meanings, from the nejm review Braemar College
broad class to which the term belongs, to the h br lakefield college school
narrower groups, to the individual distinguishing characteristics], and in most narration [this happened, then this happened, then this happened].
I think you can develop a more flexible sense of organization if you also look at some patterns that are more exclusively patterns or principles of organization. You should understand, though, that these four broad principles have many variations, that they sometimes overlap with patterns of development or exposition, and that good writing sometimes combines different methods.
In chronological order or time order , items, events, or even ideas are arranged in the order in which they occur. nejm review Braemar College.
This pattern is marked by such transitions as next, then, the following morning, a few hours later, still later, that Wednesday, by noon, when she was seventeen, before the sun rose, that April , and so on.
Chronological order can suit different rhetorical modes or patterns of exposition. It naturally fits in narration, because when we tell a story, we usually follow the order in which events occur. Chronological order applies to process in the same way, because when we describe or explain how something happens or works, we usually follow the order in which the events occur. nejm review Braemar College.
But chronological order may also apply to example, description, or parts of nejm review Braemar College
any other pattern of exposition.
Another principle of organization is spatial order . In this pattern, items are arranged according to their physical position or relationships. nejm review Braemar College.
In describing a shelf or desk, I might describe items on the left first, then move gradually toward the right. Describing a room, I might start with what I see as I enter the nejm review Braemar College
door, then what I see as I step to the middle of the room, and finally the far side. In explaining some political or social problem, I might discuss first the concerns of the East Coast, then those of the Midwest, then those of the West Coast. nejm review Braemar College.
Describing a person, I might start at the feet and move up to the how to write journal articles monkton combe school
head, or just the other way around. This pattern might use such transitions as just to the right, a little further on, to the south of Memphis, a few feet behind, in New Mexico, turning left on the pathway , and wikipedia write an article hult international business school,
so on. Spatial order is pretty common in description, but can also apply to thinking abilities skoda auto university
examples, to some comparisons, some classifications [the southern species of this bird . . . ; rhinos in Southeast Asia . . .], some narrations [meanwhile, out on the prairie ], and nejm review Braemar College,
other forms of exposition as well.
A third common principle of organization is climactic order or order of nejm review Braemar College
importance . Wikipedia write an article Hult International Business School.
In this pattern, items are arranged from least important to wikipedia write an article hult international business school
most important. Typical transitions would include more important, most difficult, still harder, by far the nejm review Braemar College
most expensive, even more damaging, worse yet, and so on. This is a flexible principle of organization, and may guide the organization of legit essay writing services university of california, irvine (uci)
all or part of example, comparison & contrast, cause & effect, and description.
A variation of climactic order is called psychological order . This pattern or organization grows from our learning that readers or listeners usually give most attention to what comes at the beginning and the end, and least attention to nejm review Braemar College
what is in the middle. In this pattern, then, you decide what is most important and put it at the beginning or the end; next you choose what is h br lakefield college school,
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end or the beginning (whichever remains); the less important or powerful items are then arranged in the middle. If the order of importance followed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, with 5 being most important, psychological order might follow the order 4, 3, 1, 2, 5 .
Still other principles of organization based on emphasis include general-to-specific order , specific-to general order , most-familiar-to-least-familiar , simplest-to-most-complex , order of legit essay writing services university of california, irvine (uci)
frequency , order of familiarity , and so on.
A fourth broad principle of organization is called topical order , and this is h br lakefield college school,
sort of a catchall pattern. It refers to organization that emerges from the topic itself. For example, a description of a computer might naturally involve the separate components of the central processing unit, the monitor, and the h br lakefield college school
keyboard, while a discussion of a computer purchase might discuss needs, products, vendors, and service. A discussion of a business might explore product, customer, and location, and so on. nejm review Braemar College.
Topical order, then, simply means an order that arises from the nature of the wikipedia write an article hult international business school
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this pattern will be a little vaguethings like another factor, the nejm review Braemar College
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addition , and so on.
I'm not sure any single list can identify all of the legit essay writing services university of california, irvine (uci)
different logical ways of organizing information. You may have forms in your workplace that impose a certain order on how an event or action is reported. Many people trying to h br lakefield college school
persuade others to change policy or behavior often examine the issue in the order of need or problem first, then the benefits of the change, then the mechanics or ease of wikipedia write an article hult international business school
implementing the change. You may see a question-answer pattern, a problem-solution pattern, or sometimes a solution-problem pattern. You will also see (and use) combinations of patterns as your ideas and purposes become more complex.
You do need to see, though, that imposing order on nejm review Braemar College
information makes the information easier to talk about, easier to understand, and easier to remember. If you choose a clear, recognizable pattern (on the level of the single paragraph, and also on the nejm review Braemar College
level of the wikipedia write an article hult international business school
whole essay body), you guide yourself in selecting details and choosing transitions, and you also guide your reader in discovering relationships that connect things, that make things seem more coherent. [See the section on nejm review Braemar College